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A Critical Review 
Of Dolgopolsky’s 
Nostratic Dictionary 

Allan R. Bomhard 

Charleston, SC, USA 

A Critical Review of 

Aharon Dolgopolsky’s Nostratic Dictionary 

Allan R. Bomhard 
Charleston, SC, USA 

Overall Assessment 

Since the early 1960s, Aharon Dolgopolsky has been gathering material for a new 
Nostratic dictionary. The results of his labor have resulted in the publication on-line 
(2008), by the McDonald Institute for Achaeological Research, Cambridge University, of 
his massive Nostratic Dictionary : (it 
can also be found on-line at: 
Dolgopolsky’s Nostratic Dictionary is an important contribution to the growing body of 
literature on the Nostratic macrofamily. With 3,033 entries, spanning some 3,000 pages, 
it is a monumental achievement, rich in data and in the number of works referenced. 

In the following review, comments will be directed primarily towards problem 
areas. They are offered as constructive suggestions to improve the work. 


The format could benefit from a complete overhaul. Everything is so densely 
packed together that it is difficult to read. The major entries could have been separated 
by a blank line, for example, to make them stand apart from one another. Within each 
entry, the different language families could have been more clearly distinguished, 
perhaps by a paragraph indentation. Moreover, the entries themselves are rather tersely 
written — Ron Coleman said it best in the paper he delivered at the Nostratic Centennial 
Conference held in Pecs, Hungary, in August 2003: “. . . a wealth of valuable scholarship 
is buried in a swamp of poor graphic page design”. This is not a “user-friendly” book. 

Another major drawback is the overuse of abbreviations. One cannot assume that 
readers of this dictionary will be familiar with all of the languages cited or with all of the 
works referenced, especially since one is dealing with multiple language families. Most 
readers will be specialists in a particular language or language family. The situation is 
exacerbated by the fact that many of the individual languages are referred to in the 
literature by more than one name. It is inconvenient to have to refer constantly to the lists 
of abbreviations. There are so many abbreviations used that it is impossible to remember 
them all. 

The use of cover symbols is also a drawback as is the idiosyncratic transcription 
system used in many of the individual fonns cited. Fortunately, one quickly figures out 
the system of cover symbols, and Dolgopolsky does give an explanation in the 
Introduction (§8.3. Capital Letters [pp. 36 — 37]). However, when one is accustomed to 
working with a standard method of transcription within each language family or 
individual language, it is a needless distraction to have to decipher a non-standard 


transcription system (as in Arabic here), especially when a layer of interpretation 
underlies the choice of particular symbols. Consequently, the conventions followed 
within each discipline should be left pretty much intact. In fairness, there are often 
conflicting methods of transcription found in the literature, even in such a well- 
established language family as Indo-European. But, as a general rule, one should not 
complicate the matter by introducing yet another transcription system. If one feels 
compelled to do so, say, in order to have a common system throughout a book, one 
should make as few changes as possible, and any such changes should be clearly spelled 
out. At the end of the book, Dolgopolsky does, indeed, list all of the abbreviations used, 
he does explain the transcription system utilized for each language, and he devotes a 
whole section (§13. On Transcription [pp. 45 — 47]) to defending his use of special 
symbols. However, even in the explanations at the end of the book, the style is so terse 
— everything is jammed together without breaks — as to make it tedious to have to work 
through this material to find what one is looking for. 

The format changes recommended here would, of course, increase the length of 
the book. However, they would also greatly improve the clarity and, therefore, the 
usability of the work. 

Foreword (pp. 3 — 5) 

Page 3, point 4: “[in spite of methodological drawbacks (cf. AD rTPN) and 
partially untenable hypotheses of sound correspondences]”: Dolgopolsky briefly 
mentions the alternative set of sound correspondences proposed by Allan R. Bomhard. A 
comprehensive explanation of why Bomhard’ s views are untenable should have been 
included here. Merely dismissing his views without further explanation gives the 
impression that Bomhard’ s objections to the sound correspondences proposed by the 
Moscow School (Dolgopolsky and Illic-Svityc) have a degree of validity. That is to say 
that Dolgopolsky is giving the impression that he has not refuted Bomhard ’s views 
because they cannot be refuted. For more information on Bomhard’s views, cf. Bomhard 
2008.1:22—26, §1.5. 

Page 4, point 5: Dolgopolsky writes: “The only comparative dictionary of 
Chukchee-Kamchadal (by O. Mudrak) was only published shortly before the present 
dictionary was submitted, and hence could not be used.” It should be noted that another 
comparative Chukchi-Kamchatkan dictionary has recently been published — Michael 
Fortescue, Comparative Chukoto-Kamchatkan Dictionary (Berlin and New York, NY: 
Mouton de Gruyter [2005]). 

Introduction (pp. 7 — 83) 

§2.1. Consonants (pp. 8 — 16) 

Placing lines between the columns would have greatly increased clarity in the 
table of sound correspondences (pp. 9 — 15). 


It is not clear why Semitic, Egyptian, and Berber are given separate treatment in 
the table of sound correspondences. These are merely three branches of Afroasiatic. The 
other branches (Cushitic, Omotic, Chadic) are not listed. It is the reconstructed Proto- 
Afroasiatic phonemes that should have been compared instead. 

The interpretation of the third consonant series as “emphatic” requires a better 
explanation. Emphatics of the type found in Arabic and Berber, for example, are unlikely 
to have yielded the reflexes in the Nostratic daughter languages proposed by Dolgopolsky 
(for one thing, emphatics are notoriously prone to have assimilatory effects on adjacent 
vowels, and no such effects are observable in the Nostratic reconstructions proposed by 
Dolgopolsky or, for that matter, in any of the data from the daughter languages). Far 
more probable is the interpretation of this series as glottalics (ejectives), as originally 
proposed by Illic-Svityc and supported by Dolgopolsky himself until recently. The 
evidence for such an interpretation comes from Afroasiatic and Kartvelian, and that 
evidence is fairly solid. One suspects that Dolgopolsky has modified his views, at least 
in part, in an attempt to overcome the objections raised by Bomhard to the sound 
correspondences proposed by him and Illic-Svityc. Therefore, we come back to the point 
raised above about the need to give a comprehensive explanation of why Dolgopolsky 
considers Bomhard’ s views to be untenable. Once that has been successfully dealt with, 
there will be no need to offer the highly unlikely interpretation of the third consonant 
series as “emphatic”. 

Some of the proposed correspondence sets, such as those involving the postvelars, 
the fricative laterals/lateralized affricates, and the voiced dental (3), palatalized dental (3), 
and palato-alveolar (3) affricates, for example, are not convincing and need to be 
thoroughly reworked (the corresponding voiceless and glottalized affricates fare only 
slightly better). Most of the etymologies involving these sounds were rejected as a result 
of my evaluation (see below). At least some of the examples involving postvelars can be 
better explained by positing earlier laryngeals (such as no. 1875 *qantV ‘forehead, front’, 
which is better reconstructed as *HantV, or no. 1876, *qapV ‘to stream, to flow’, which 
is better reconstructed as *HapV, etc.), while others are simply erroneous. 

The entire section on phonology gives the impression that it was hastily thrown 
together. Moreover, parts are based upon outdated or questionable scholarship within 
each branch — the Proto-Indo-European phonological system, to cite one example, is 
based exclusively upon Neogrammarian views with the addition of laryngeals. Recent 
scholarship is entirely ignored. The vast majority of Indo-Europeanists posit either three 
or four laryngeals for the Indo-European parent language, while Dolgopolsky posits a 
multitude of controversial phonemes here, most conveniently subsumed under cover 
symbols, without further explanation as to their phonetic make-up, their vowel-coloring 
or vowel-lengthening effects, or their development in the individual Indo-European 
daughter languages. The evidence of Afroasiatic plus the judicious use of linguistic 
typology provide useful tools for a more accurate specification of the Proto-Indo- 
European laryngeals and their probable development. A good model is the 1969 paper by 
Joseph H. Greenberg entitled “Some Methods of Dynamic Comparison in Linguistics”, in 
which Greenberg examines the development of similar sounds in Coptic and then draws 
upon his findings to explain developments in Indo-European. 


§2.2. Comments and Additional Explanations (pp. 16 — 20) 

The table of sound correspondences contains many assumptions that are not 
adequately addressed in the accompanying notes. To cite a single example again, the 
Proto-Indo-European laryngeals are not discussed. Opinions differ among specialists as 
to the exact number and phonetic make-up of the laryngeals (cf. Winter [ed.] 1965). 
Dolgopolsky should have taken the time to explain his views. This is one area where the 
other Nostratic languages can clarify the question of the number of laryngeals to be 
reconstructed, their prehistoric development within the Indo-European parent language, 
and their probable phonetic make-up. Dolgopolsky has missed a critical opportunity to 
show that the Nostratic Hypothesis can offer explanations that are not available on the 
basis of Indo-European data alone. There are many other such missed opportunities from 
the other Nostratic daughter languages as well. It is just this sort of thing, namely, the 
ability to offer credible solutions to hitherto intractable problems within each branch, that 
will lend credibility to the Nostratic Hypothesis. 

At least passing mention should have been made concerning the Glottalic Theory 
of Proto-Indo-European consonantism proposed by Thomas V. Gamkrelidze, Vjaceslav 
V. Ivanov, and Paul J. Hopper and why Dolgopolsky rejects their views. 

There is still no consensus concerning major parts of the reconstruction of the 
Proto-Afroasiatic consonant system. Though some series (labials, dentals, velars, etc.) 
are fairly well established, the sibilants, affricates, and fricative laterals, in particular, are 
far from being fully understood, and the reconstruction of labiovelars and postvelars is 
hotly contested. Thus, any assumptions made by those using Afroasiatic data are going 
to be controversial. Dolgopolsky’s failure to lay out his own views here greatly 
diminishes the viability of the Nostratic etymologies based upon the sounds in question 
— again, most of the etymologies involving these sounds were rejected as a result of my 
evaluation (see below). 

Likewise, the treatment of the emphatics in the individual Afroasiatic daughter 
languages requires a more detailed explanation. Dolgopolsky previously published 
(1977) an excellent paper on the development of the emphatics within Semitic, and the 
conclusions from that paper could easily have been incorporated into the Nostratic 
Dictionary. Moreover, this could have been another opportunity for Dolgopolsky to 
show how and why Bomhard’s views on Nostratic sound correspondences are not valid, 
since Bomhard specifically uses the Afroasiatic (and Kartvelian) “emphatics” (glottalics / 
ejectives) to support his views. It may be noted here that Bomhard also accepts the 
glottalic model of Proto-Indo-European consonantism. 

Older views of Altaic phonology (Ramstedt, Poppe, Street, etc.) held that the 
Proto-Altaic consonant system was characterized by a two-way contrast of voiceless 
(aspirated) vs. voiced members. More recent views (Illic-Svityc, Starostin, A. Dybo, 
Mudrak, etc.) propose a three-way contrast of plain voiceless vs. voiceless aspirated vs. 
voiced members. Even though Dolgopolsky prefers to treat Mongolian, Manchu-Tungus, 
and Turkic (the core Altaic languages) as three independent branches of Nostratic, an 
explanation of the prehistoric development of their phonology is an absolute necessity, 
inasmuch as these languages are among the most contentious areas in Nostratic studies 
(not to mention Altaic studies). 


§2.3. Structure of N[ostratic] Words (p. 20) 

The root structure patterning is discussed far too superficially. Not only should 
the root structure patterning be given a fuller explanation, the development of that 
patterning in each daughter language needs to be discussed as well. This is important 
because it provides the basis for the reconstructions that form the bulk of this work. The 
same may be said about derivational morphology, which Dolgopolsky briefly discusses a 
little later on (§5. Derivation [pp. 27 — 28]). 

§2.4. Vowels (pp. 20 — 24) 

Dolgopolsky’s reconstruction of the Proto-Nostratic vowels appears to be mainly 
correct except for *a and *ii, which are highly speculative. As noted by Dolgopolsky, the 
Proto-Nostratic vowels were at least partially preserved in initial syllables in Uralic, 
Dravidian, and Altaic. However, they appear to have been originally preserved in Proto- 
Afroasiatic as well. Within Afroasiatic, Cushitic and Omotic are particularly 
conservative in their vocalism, while the vowel systems found in Semitic, Egyptian, and 
Berber exhibit a wholesale reduction of the inherited system. Thus, notions of what 
Proto-Afroasiatic vocalism might have been like based upon the Semitic model are likely 
to be wrong. It turns out that Afroasiatic vocalism was highly archaic and, consequently, 
has an important role to play in the reconstruction of Proto-Nostratic vocalism. 

The system of ablaut found in Semitic, Egyptian, and Berber initially arose 
through morphological processes. It appeared quite early in verbal stems and derivative 
nominal stems, though primary root nouns continued to maintain stable vocalism right up 
to the emergence of the individual daughter languages. Once established, the system of 
ablaut was greatly expanded, especially in Semitic. 

The inherited vowel system underwent a thorough restructuring in both Proto- 
Indo-European and Proto-Kartvelian as a result of a complicated series of changes 
initiated by the phonemicization of a strong stress accent in the early prehistory of these 
branches. As pointed out by Dolgopolsky, these developments diminish the importance 
of Kartvelian and Indo-European for ascertaining the Proto-Nostratic vowel system. 

A chart, similar to the one prepared for the consonants, detailing the development 
of the vowels in the individual Nostratic daughter languages would have been helpful. 

§3. Grammar (pp. 24 — 26) 

The treatment of Proto-Nostratic morphological is far too superficial to be of 
benefit. Both Allan R. Bomhard (2004) and Vladimir Dybo (2004) published papers in 
the proceedings of the Nostratic Centennial Conference held in Pecs, Hungary, in August 
2003 in which Proto-Nostratic morphology is discussed in great detail. Dybo’s paper 
reflects the views of Illic-Svityc. There are many points of agreement between these two 
papers, as well as some differences — Bomhard’s paper is the more detailed of the two. 
These papers should be consulted, as should Vol. 1: Grammar of Joseph H. Greenberg’s 


Indo-European and Its Closest Relatives: The Eurasiatic Language Family, and the 
entire section on Proto-Nostratic morphology should be entirely rewritten and greatly 

Dolgopolsky posits an analytic morphological structure for Proto-Nostratic, but in 
his point 6 (p. 24), he says: “Case markers follow the noun”. Given the type of structure 
he is positing, it would be more accurate to say: “Relational markers follow the noun”. 
The same may be said of his claim under C: Auxiliary words (pp. 25 — 26) that *mA and 
*tA represent particles of marked accusative. Rather, these were relational particles 
indicating marked direct object. It is not just a matter of semantics here but of 
typological consistency. Using terms such as “case” and “accusative” implies a more 
synthetic structure, which is quite a bit different from the analytic morphological 
structure Dolgopolsky claims existed in the Nostratic parent language. Eventually, the 
so-called “auxiliary words” (relational particles) became bound relational markers, first 
agglutinative and then inflectional (fusional) in the individual daughter languages, as the 
case may be, just as Dolgopolsky outlines a little later on in §4. Grammatical Typology 
(pp. 26 — 27): “In the descendant languages most of these grammatical auxiliary words 
and some pronouns turned into synthetic affixes [agglutinative in Early U and A, 
inflectional (fusional) in IE and to a certain extent in HS and K]”. Agglutination is also 
the rule in Dravidian. 

Likewise, the pronouns are treated superficially. Dolgopolsky published a rather 
long analysis of Nostratic pronouns in the Gcde nk schri ft for Bjorn Collinder in 1984, and 
that paper should have been used as a model. This section, too, should be entirely 
rewritten and greatly expanded. 

§4. Grammatical Typology (pp. 26 — 27) 

Though Dolgopolsky seems to be implying that nominative-accusative structure 
was found in Proto-Nostratic, grammatical typology is actually not discussed. Some of 
the branches do, indeed, exhibit nominative-accusative structure (Indo-European, Uralic, 
and Altaic), but others exhibit ergative-absolutive structure (Kartvelian, Eskimo-Aleut, 
and Chukchi-Kamchatkan), and still others stative-active structure (Afroasiatic and 
probably Elamo-Dravidian [definitely Elamite]), with each of these different grammatical 
structures requiring a different type of clause alignment. No mention is made of how the 
inherited system was transformed into the systems found in the different branches. Nor is 
there any discussion of non-Nostratic languages or language families to show that the 
morphological structure being posited by Dolgopolsky for the Nostratic parent language 
has typological parallels in attested languages. 

In actual fact, the type of grammatical structure that seems to be able to account 
best for the circumstances found in the Nostratic daughter languages is not nominative- 
accusative but, rather, stative-active (cf. Bomhard 2004 and 2008.1:387 — 415). Stative- 
active structure has been convincingly posited for an early form of Proto-Indo-European 
by a number of distinguished scholars (Gamkrelidze, Ivanov, Lehmann, et al. [for details, 
cf. Bomhard 2008.1:417 — 529]). 


§5. Derivation (pp. 27 — 28) 

A better delineation of root structure patterning and syntax in both Proto-Nostratic 
and the various daughter languages would have made it easier to account for some of the 
derivational patterning Dolgopolsky discusses. Dravidian is agglutinative and strictly 
suffixal, while prefixes are found, for example, in Kartvelian and Afroasiatic. The order 
of meaningful elements within a clause is determined by syntactical rules. (S)OV implies 
one type of order, while (S)VO implies another. A change of type — for example, from 
(S)OV to (S)VO — in the early prehistory of some of the daughter languages would have 
changed the order of meaningful elements, and this would be reflected in the daughter 
languages. This is, indeed, exactly what is found, but Dolgopolsky does not provide any 
explanation as to why there are discrepancies in the placement of derivational elements in 
the different branches beyond just taking note; for example: “Thus the etymon *mA (that 
underlies affixes of nomina actionis and nomina agentis in the descendant languages) was 
a separate word, which is evidenced by its position: in HS and K it is found both in front 
of the verb and after it (while in IE, U, D and A its position in the word is always final).” 

Dolgopolsky (p. 28) notes that: “Of course we cannot rule out an ancient 
synthetic origin of some enigmatic ‘root extensions’ ... that have lost their former 
meaning in IE, HS and other lgs. and are represented by an additional consonant at the 
end of roots or by synonymous roots that differ in their final (usually third) consonant. 
These ‘root extensions’ need serious investigation”. It should be mentioned that, for 
Afroasiatic, Christopher Ehret has investigated and attempted to explain the origin and 
development of these “root extensions”. His earliest paper on the subject (“The Origin of 
Third Consonants in Semitic Roots: An Internal Reconstruction [Applied to Arabic]”, 
Journal of Afroasiatic Languages 2.2:109 — 202 [1989]) deals primarily with Semitic, 
especially Arabic, while Afroasiatic as a whole is dealt with in his 1995 book 
Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic (Proto-Afroasiatic) : Vowels, Tone, Consonants, and 
Vocabulary. These works, among others, should have been consulted. 

§6. The Place of Hamito-Semitic (pp. 28 — 33) 

Some scholars would like to remove Afroasiatic (Hamito-Semitic) from Nostratic 
proper and make it a sister (“coordinate”) language, while others, including Dolgopolsky, 
Illic-Svityc, and Bomhard, see it as a full-fledged branch of Nostratic. However, this is 
not necessarily an “either/or” issue. Another explanation is possible, namely, the 
recognition that not all branches of Nostratic are on an equal footing. Afroasiatic can be 
seen as the first branch to have become separated from the main speech community, 
followed first by Dravidian, then by Kartvelian, and, finally, by Greenberg’s Eurasiatic, 
which was the last branch to become differentiated into separate languages and language 

Thus, by adopting this scenario, Dolgopolsky’s conclusion that “... the traditional 
Nostraticist view considering HS as a branch of N is still valid” can be maintained, while 
the objections raised by Greenberg, Ruhlen, and Starostin can also be accommodated. 
Thus, Greenberg’s Eurasiatic is to be seen as a valid linguistic taxon that was a branch of 
a larger macrofamily, namely, Nostratic. 


In the paragraph beginning “J. Greenberg’s opinion ...” (p. 29), the Sanskrit word 
for ‘to eat’ is incorrectly given as at-', it should be ad- (cf. 1st sg. pres. act. admi). 
Likewise, the Latin word is given as edo\ it should be edd. Finally, the Hittite word is 
given as it-', it should be ed- (in plene writing, the 1st sg. pres. act. form is e-id-mi ), or 
even ed-!ad- to reflect ablaut variants. 

§8.3. Capital Letters (pp. 36 — 37) 

Dolgopolsky (p. 36) claims that . . the velar *k and the uvular *q has survived in 
Kartvelian only...” The distinction between velar and uvular stops also survived in 
Chukchi-Kamchatkan, though the original contrast between voiced ~ voiceless ~ and 
“emphatic” (to use Dolgopolsky’s tenninology) was lost (Proto-Nostratic *g, *k, and *k 
have merged into *k in Proto-Chukchi-Kamchatkan, while *g [IPA g], *q, and *q have 
merged into *q). A little later (p. 37), he further claims that “. . . [t]he distinction between 
the reflexes of *r or *r has survived in Turkic and Dravidian only.” This distinction may 
also have survived in Chukchi-Kamchatkan, where Proto-Nostratic *r > *r, and *f > *r. 

§8.5. Isolated Cognates (pp. 39 — 41) 

In the paragraph beginning “The Nostratic word *qantV ...” (p. 40), Dolgopolsky 
mentions Ferdinand de Saussure’s “sonantic coefficients”. This tenn is usually left 
untranslated from the French: “coefficients sonantiques”. The English rendering makes 
no sense. 

§12. Was Nostratic a root-isolating or a stem-isolating language? (pp. 44) 

This whole section would have been unnecessary had Dolgopolsky done a more 
thorough analysis of root structure patterning and derivational morphology. My own 
findings indicate that root structure patterning in the Nostratic parent language was as 
follows (this patterning is consistent with what one would expect in a language with 
active-stative grammatical typology): 

1. There were no initial vowels in Proto-Nostratic. Therefore, every root began with a 

2. Originally, there were no initial consonant clusters either. Consequently, every root 
began with one and only one consonant. Medial clusters were permitted, however. 

3. Two basic root types existed: (A) *CV and (B) *CVC, where C = any non-syllabic, 
and V = any vowel. Permissible root forms coincided exactly with these two syllable 

4. A stem could either be identical with a root or it could consist of a root plus a single 
derivational morpheme added as a suffix to the root: *CVC+C V-. Any consonant 
could serve as a suffix. 


5. A stem could thus assume any one of the following shapes: (A) *CV-, (B) *CVC-, (C) 
*CVC+CV-, or (D) *CVC-CVC-. As in Proto-Altaic, the undifferentiated stems were 
real forms in themselves and could be used without additional suffixes or 
grammatical endings. However, when so used, a vowel had to be added to the stem 
(unless the stem already ended in a vowel or in a semivowel, nasal, or liquid), thus: 
(A) *CV- > *CF (no change), (B) *CVC- > *CVC+V, (C) *CVC-CV- > (no change), 
or (D) *CVC-CVC- > *CVC-CVC+Y. Following Afroasiatic terminology, this vowel 
may be called a “terminal vowel” (TV). Not only did tenninal vowels exist in Proto- 
Afroasiatic, they were also found in Dravidian, where they are called “enunciative 
vowels”. As in Proto-Dravidian, the tenninal vowel was only required in stems 
ending in obstruents, which could not occur in final position. 

On the basis of the evidence of Proto-Indo-European, Proto-Kartvelian, Proto- 
Afroasiatic, Proto-Dravidian, and Proto-Altaic, it may be assumed that there were three 
fundamental stem types in Proto-Nostratic: (A) verbal stems, (B) nominal and adjectival 
stems, and (C) pronominal and indeclinable stems. Some stems were exclusively 
nominal. In the majority of cases, however, both verbal stems and nominal stems could 
be built from the same root. In Proto-Nostratic, only pronominal and indeclinable stems 
could end in a vowel. Verbal and nominal stems, on the other hand, had to end in a 
consonant, though, as noted above, when the undifferentiated stems were used as real 
words in themselves, a “tenninal vowel” had to be added to the stem (but only when the 
stem ended in an obstruent). The terminal vowels were morphologically significant. 
Adjectives did not exist as an independent grammatical category in Proto-Nostratic. 

Comments on Individual Entries 

Dolgopolsky has done a good job of reconstructing Proto-Nostratic roots of the 
shape *CVCV and *CV as well as the first syllable (*CVC-) of polysyllabic stems. 
Additional extensions, however, are often reconstructed on the basis of flimsy evidence, 
sometimes even on the basis of the evidence of a single branch. Such reconstructions are 
highly questionable. It is more probable that these longer forms arose in the prehistory of 
the individual branches. Consequently, they should not be projected back into Proto- 
Nostratic. It is not helpful to speculate that something may have been lost when 
corroborating evidence is missing. Lack of evidence should be taken at face value unless 
there are compelling reasons to think otherwise. An example here would be entry 75, 
*?erq[i] ‘ruminant’, where the only evidence (and weak at that) for *-q[i] comes from 
Afroasiatic. There is absolutely nothing whatsoever in the data from the other languages 
being compared (Indo-European and Dravidian) to suggest that *-q[i] should be 
reconstructed as part of the Proto-Nostratic form. 

Harold C. Fleming has observed (personal correspondence): "... the actual 
contribution that [Dolgopolsky ’s] immense output makes to the scientific problem is 
much less than the ostensibly overwhelming mass of data and sources suggests. For 
example, an awful lot of space is taken up with secondary reconstructions that are not 
really needed to make a point. And sometimes the strings of this came from that, which 


came from that, which came from something else becomes almost literally unbelievable. 
A string of suppositions masquerading as evidence!” 

In general, the methodology appears to be rather lax compared to Illic-Svityc. 
This is not to say that there are not some brilliant etymologies — there are. However, 
there are simply too many unexplained violations of the sound laws, there are too many 
dubious reconstructed forms, and there is too wide a latitude in the semantics of many of 
the supporting forms from the daughter languages. Dolgopolsky even includes entries 
(such as no. 475, no. 528, no. 1321, no. 1892, no. 1912, no. 2109, no. 2753, etc.) that he, 
himself, calls “doubtful”, “highly doubtful”, “questionable”, “ambiguous”, etc. Such 
entries should not have been included — they severely weaken the case. Moreover, there 
are far too many forms that have more than one possible Nostratic etymology. A fair 
number of these forms require ad hoc explanations to make them “fit in”, no matter 
where they are placed — only the best of the best of such forms should have been 
included. Any endeavor to establish a higher-level linguistic taxon such as Proto- 
Nostratic is going to be controversial to begin with. Consequently, in order to be even 
moderately credible, it is imperative that the highest methodological standards be 
observed in the choice of the material being compared, in the meanings assigned to 
reconstructed forms, in only assigning meanings that take into consideration the cultural, 
environmental, and social setting at the time that the proto-language is alleged to have 
been spoken, in the strict adherence to sound laws, in providing clear, convincing 
explanations for any exceptions to the established sound laws, in eliminating borrowings 
and/or Wanderworter, in respecting and staying within the bounds of the established 
scholarship within each of the languages/language families being compared, etc. 

In his effort to reconstruct the greatest number of forms possible for the Nostratic 
parent language, Dolgopolsky fails to identify underlying stems. For example, it is clear 
that all of the entries given below are related (assuming here, for the sake of argument, 
that each is a valid etymology in its own right) — they are all derivatives of an 
underlying *PaL[V] ‘to split, to divide’, to which various extensions have been added: 

1716. *paRJKu ‘axe, hammer’. 

1717. *Pa[l]VkV ‘to split lengthwise, to divide’. 

1718. *pal[V]tV ‘to split’, ‘axe’. 

1720. *PVLhE[ 3 ]V and/or *PVLhE[c|c]V ‘to split, to separate’. 

In this case, it is the underlying stem *PaL[V] ‘to split, to divide’ that should have been 
reconstructed as entry no. 1716 (or whatever the actual number turns out to be after all of 
the entries have been properly renumbered [note the comments below]). The remaining 
entries should then have been identified as derivatives of this stem and numbered 1716a, 
1716b, 1716c, and 1716d. 

Each of the entries in Dolgopolsky ’s dictionary were evaluated according to the 
following scale: 

Strong: This is a solid etymology, without major problems. 

Possible: This is a plausible etymology, but there are problem areas. Quite 

often, one of the putative cognates in the daughter languages (at 
the macro level, not individual cited forms) does not belong or is 


questionable, while the remaining cognates do, indeed, fit together 
quite well. There may also be minor problems with the semantics 
or with the phonology, but these can usually be explained in terms 
of widely-attested semantic shifts or phonological processes. 

Weak: There are major problems with this etymology, usually either with 

the semantics or the phonology or with the quality or quantity of 
the supporting material from the daughter languages. Nonetheless, 
this etymology is not to be rejected outright. Typically, there are 
parts that can be salvaged, though the etymology cannot stand as 

Rejected: There are so many problems with this etymology that it must be 

rejected. Some of the rejected etymologies involve borrowings. 

Each entry was evaluated exclusively in terms of the material cited from the 
daughter languages to determine the extent to which viable comparisons were proposed, 
that is to say, whether they had a chance of being true cognates or whether they were 
merely specious. No attempt was made to judge the validity of the reconstructed forms, 
which, by their very nature, are highly speculative and totally dependent upon the quality 
and quantity of the material being compared. Moreover, the etymologies were judged in 
tenns of the sound correspondences proposed by Dolgopolsky, not the alternative set 
proposed by Allan R. Bomhard. 

In evaluating the individual etymologies, the vowels were given as much weight 
as the consonants. If there was not a perfect or nearly perfect match in both, or if 
Dolgopolsky failed to give a convincing explanation for exceptions to the expected 
correspondences, the etymology was rejected, even if the semantics were solid. It is 
particularly troublesome, for instance, when there are irreconcilable differences among 
those languages (Dravidian, Uralic, and Altaic) in which the vowels of the initial syllable 
are alleged to be particularly well preserved. In fairness, Dolgopolsky does, indeed, 
attempt to explain exceptions to the established correspondences. However, many of his 
explanations give the impression of being rather ad hoc. “Ad hoc” does not constitute a 
law. In like manner, even though the correspondences may have been flawless, an 
etymology was rejected or evaluated as “weak” if the semantics were not perfect or 
nearly perfect. Dolgopolsky simply needs to offer better explanations when there are 
wide discrepancies in the semantics in the forms cited from the daughter languages. In 
spite of all of these conditions, whenever there were uncertainties, Dolgopolsky was 
always given the benefit of the doubt. 

It took some seven months to go through Dolgopolsky’s Nostratic Dictionary, 
entry by entry. Every single entry was carefully evaluated in accordance with the criteria 
listed above. Though the numbers only go up to 2805, my count found 3,033 entries due 
to the fact that letters were added after the numbers when new entries were inserted (see 
below). I judged 177 (5.8%) etymologies to be “strong”, 1,011 (33.3%) to be “possible”, 
508 (16.8%) to be “weak”, and 1,337 (44.1%) to be “rejected”. That is to say that the 
acceptable etymologies only amounted to 39.1% of the total, while the remaining 60.9% 
were found to have major shortcomings, 44.1% being rejected altogether. The list that I 
made of the evaluation of the individual etymologies is included as an Appendix at the 
end of this review. 


Some final comments are in order: Dolgopolsky should have made the effort 
(albeit tedious) to renumber the entries whenever a new etymology was inserted. Adding 
the letters “a” or “b” after a number implies that there is some sort of relationship to the 
preceding, like-numbered entry, which is never the case (I only found one exception, 
namely, nos. 1354, 1354a, and 1354b, which do, indeed, form a natural grouping). There 
are also far too many typographical errors, both in the text and in the fonns cited. 

Closing Remarks 

Despite the rather critical tone of this review, Dolgopolsky’s Nostratic Dictionary 
is an invaluable resource. Anyone who takes the time to work through the etymologies 
contained in this dictionary cannot help but be impressed both by Dolgopolsky’s vast 
knowledge as well as by the amount of work that went into preparing this book. To be 
sure, many of the etymologies have problems. Nonetheless, those who have the patience 
to work through the book will be immensely rewarded. 


Bomhard, Allan R. 

2004 “Preliminary Thoughts on Nostratic Morphology”, in: Iren Hegedus and 
Paul Sidwell (eds.), Nostratic Centennial Conference: The Pecs Papers. 
Pecs: Lingua Franca Group, pp. 27 — 50. 

2008 Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic: Comparative Phonology, Morphology, 
and Vocabulary. 2 vols. Leiden and Boston, MA: E. J. Brill. 

Bomhard, Allan R., and John C. Kerns 

1994 The Nostratic Macrofamily: A Study in Distant Linguistic Relationship . 
Berlin, New York, NY, and Amsterdam: Mouton de Gruyter. 

Coleman, Ronald A. 

2004 “Nostratic, Quo Vadis?”, in: Iren Hegedus and Paul Sidwell (eds.), 
Nostratic Centennial Conference: The Pecs Papers. Pecs: Lingua Franca 
Group, pp. 63 — 83. 

Dolgopolsky, Aharon 

1977 “Emphatic Consonants in Semitic”, Israel Oriental Studies VII: 1 — 13. 

1984 “On Personal Pronouns in the Nostratic Languages”, in: Otto 

Gschwantler, Karoly Redei, and Hermann Reichert (eds.), Linguistica et 
Philologica. Gedenkschrift fur Bjorn Collinder (1894 — 1983) [Linguistics 
and Philology. Memorial Volume for Bjorn Collinder (1894 — 1983)] . 
Vienna: Wilhelm Braumiiller, pp. 65 — 1 12. 

Dybo, Vladimir 

2004 “On Illic-Svityc’s Study ‘Basic Features of the Proto-Language of the 
Nostratic Language Family’,” in: Iren Hegedus and Paul Sidwell (eds.), 
Nostratic Centennial Conference: The Pecs Papers. Pecs: Lingua Franca 
Group, pp. 115 — 119. 


Ehret, Christopher 

1989 “The Origin of Third Consonants in Semitic Roots: An Internal 
Reconstruction (Applied to Arabic)”, Journal of Afroasiatic Languages 

1995 Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic (Proto-Afroasiatic): Vowels, Tone, 

Consonants, and Vocabulary. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University 
of California Press. 

Fortescue, Michael 

2005 Comparative Chukotko-Kamchatkan Dictionary. Berlin and New York, 
NY : Mouton de Gruyter. 

Fortescue, Michael, Steven Jacobson, and Lawrence Kaplan 

1994 Comparative Eskimo Dictionary. Fairbanks, AK: Alaska Native 

Language Center. 

Gamkrelidze, Thomas, and Vjaceslav V. Ivanov 

1995 Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans: A Reconstruction and Historical 
Typological Analysis of a Protolanguage and a Proto-Culture. 2 vols. 
English translation by Johanna Nichols. Berlin, New York, NY, and 
Amsterdam: Mouton de Gruyter. 

Greenberg, Joseph H. 

1969 “Some Methods of Dynamic Comparison in Linguistics”, in: Jaan Puhvel 
(ed.), Substance and Structure of Language. Berkeley and Los Angeles, 
CA: University of California Press, pp. 147 — 203. 

2000 Indo-European and Its Closest Relatives: The Eurasiatic Language 
Family. Volume 1 : Grammar. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 

Lehmann, Winfred P. 

2002 Pre-Indo-European. (= Journal of Indo-European Studies Monograph no. 
41.) Washington, DC: Institute for the Study of Man. 

Winter, Werner (ed.) 

1965 Evidence for Laryngeals. The Hague: Mouton. 


Appendix: Proto-Nostratic Vocabulary 

The most convincing etymologies (“strong” and “possible”) are highlighted in red. 

1 . *?a particle of plurality: rejected. 

2. *?a ‘to become, to be’: rejected. 

2a. *?A a marker of the male sex: rejected. 

3. *?e (~ ? *?a) ‘not’: strong. 

4. *?a?V ‘female’ — > marker of femininity: rejected. 

5. *?aba ~ *?apa ‘daddy, father’: strong. 

6. *?oH 2 bV (= *?ohbV) ‘clan’: rejected. 

7. *?[a]bV ‘water’: strong. 

8. *?ibrE ‘fig tree’: rejected. 

9. *?Vc|cVhV ‘back (dorsum)’: possible. 

10. *?acPV ‘± leaf-bearing tree’ (‘aspen’ or the like): possible. 

11. *?acV Tow place, depression, wadi, pond’: possible. 

12. *?A[d]V (= * < i‘A[d]V) ‘foot’: strong. 

13. *?uHdV(RV) ‘breast’: possible. 

13a. *?u[x|y]dV (or *?uhdV) ‘one’: weak. 

14. *?ediNV ‘pater familias’: possible. 

15. *?aga ‘uncle, elder person’: possible. 

15a. *?aegVRV ‘bone of the leg’: rejected. 

16. *?a[h]a ‘thing(s)’: rejected. 

17. *?[a]ke ‘to chase, to drive away, to take away’: rejected. 

18. *?aka ‘to be evil, to hate’: possible. 

19. *?[o]kE (= *?[o]kii) ‘self (— > ‘myself): weak. 

20. *?o[k]aLV ‘to eat’: weak. 

21. *?aKa ‘elder relative, grandfather’: possible. 

22. *?ala pc. of negation and categorical prohibition: strong. 

23. *?elV ‘clan, tribe’ (— > ‘all’, pronoun of plurality): weak. 

24. *?E1V dem. prn. of collectivity: rejected. 

25. *?elV ‘deer’: possible. 

26. *?il[A] ‘to stand, to stay; place to stay’: possible. 

27. *?ilV ‘eye’: possible. 

28. *[?]olV ‘that (visible)’: strong. 

29. *?[o]LV (or *?oyiTV ?) ‘bough, hook’ (— > ‘to hang on a hook’): possible. 

30. *?ulV ‘soil, foundation, earth’: possible. 

31. *[?ii]LudV ‘to grow’: rejected. 

32. *[?]El[i]mA ‘tree’ (‘elm’ or the like): possible. 

33. *[?]ala ‘food’: possible. 

34. *?uh[V]lV ‘hut’: weak. 

35. *[?]ii|ul[g]a ‘cold’: possible. 

36. *?amV (= *hamV ?) demonstrative pronoun (‘iste’) ‘now’: strong. 

37. *?emA ‘mother’: strong. 

38. *?emV ‘to seize, to hold’: possible. 

39. *?[o]mV ‘kin, clan, everybody’: weak. 


40. *?amga ‘dry, thirsty’: possible. 

41. *?amPV ‘wolf: rejected. 

42. *?am[V]RV (or *?am[o](-RV) ?) ‘morning, daylight’: possible. 

43. *[?][o]mrE ‘bum’ (intr.), ‘to shine, to be bright, to dawn’: rejected. 

44. *[?]omsa ‘flesh, meat’ : possible. 

45. *?in[A] ‘place’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘in’): strong. 

46. *?onV ‘self, the same’: possible. 

47. *?ayna (or *[?ay]Ena) ‘nothing, there is no’: possible. 

48. *?ANsV (*?aNsV ?) ‘foot’: weak. 

49. *?ah[V]sV ‘friendly, favorable, useful’: possible. 

50. *?inVse ‘person, man’: possible. 

51. *?VntV (or *?VntV ?) ‘he’, relative ‘he who, that which’: rejected. 

52. *?ago ‘snake’: rejected. 

53. *Vayr)o ‘marrow, brain, soft fat of animals’ (— > ‘to smear, to anoint’): rejected. 

54. *?ag*i|gV ‘chin’: weak. 

55. *?agq[i] ‘to breathe’: rejected. 

56. *?agga ‘to open’: possible. 

57. *?[o]gKa ‘to pant, to sigh, to groan’: possible. 

58. *?[a]PV ‘to take, to seize’: possible. 

59. *?epV ‘mouth’ (— > ‘to speak’): rejected. 

60. *?opa ‘powder, dust, small pieces of earth’: possible. 

61. *?VpV ‘monkey’: rejected. 

62. *?aP[h]i ‘to bake, to cook food on hot stones’: possible. 

63. *?VqV ‘thing(s)’ and pronoun/noun of plurality: rejected. 

64. *[?]u|u[q]ye ‘night, dark hours’: weak. 

65. *?arV ‘earth, land, place’: possible. 

66. *?aRV ‘member of one’s clan/family’: strong. 

67. *?erV ‘to divide; one share, one, single’: possible. 

68. *?uRE (or *?iiRV) ‘to drink, to swallow’: possible. 

69. *?urV ‘to gather’ (— > ‘everyone belonging to...’, ‘clan, relatives; multitude’): 

70. *?UrV ‘squirrel’: possible. 

71. *?V[r]V (— > *rV ?) theme-focalizing (tropicalizing) particle: rejected. 

72. *[?V]rV ‘towards’ (— > ‘in’): possible. 

72a. *?i[?|y]r[a] ‘to drag, to pull, to push’: possible. 

73. *?u[w]rV (or *?ii- ?) ‘light (lux), fire’: possible. 

74. *?ir[E?]u ‘intestines’: weak. 

75. *?erq[i] ‘ruminant’ : possible. 

76. *?u|orVqV (or *?u|orVqV[?]V ?) ‘path, way’: weak. 

77. *?aRba ‘to lie in ambush, to scheme evil to someone’, (?) ‘to use magic tools’: 

78. *?ArcA (or *?Ac[V]RA) ‘trace’ (— >■ ‘sign’, ‘to choose’): possible. 

79. *?ar[V]ka (or *yar[V]ka ?) ‘to see, to observe’: weak. 

80. *[?]aRH 2 VmV (H 2 = *h ?) ‘upper arm, part of limb’: weak. 

81. *?or[u] ‘antelope, deer, mountain goaf : possible. 

82. *?urV (or *?urE) ‘top’: possible. 


83. *?[ii]rVwV ‘large feline’: weak. 

84. *?[a]s[o] ‘to stay, to be’ (Illic-Svityc <— ‘to settle’): strong. 

85. *?isV (or *?i?sV ?) ‘to sit’, ‘seat (the part of the body that bears the weight in 
sitting)’ (— > ‘foundation, basis’): strong. 

86. *?usV ‘fire’: weak. 

87. *[?]VsV ‘they’: rejected. 

88. *?i|us[U]tV ‘to sweep, to rake’: rejected. 

89. *[?V]s[u]H 2 V ‘wild boar’: strong. 

90. *[?]atV ‘female, woman’: possible. 

91. *?ite ‘to eat’: possible. 

92. *?at[?]V ‘to come’, (?) ‘to walk’: possible. 

93. *?EtuRV ‘day, noon’: possible. 

94. *?[e]tV ‘to make’ (— > causitivizing morpheme): possible. 

95. *?ey[V]tV ‘to reach, to obtain’: weak. 

96. *?[a]wu ‘whether?’ (particle of general question), ‘or’: strong. 

97. *?VwVyV ‘island, seashore’: possible. 

98. *?uXi ‘egg’: possible. 

99. *?[a]yV ‘to say, to speak, to call’: possible. 

100. *?[a]yV ‘mother’: strong. 

101. *?ayV (= *?aya ?) ‘which’: possible. 

102. *?[e]yV ‘to come, to arrive’: possible. 

103. *?aszEkU (= *?aszikU ?) ‘thorn, hook’ (— * ‘tooth’): rejected. 

104. *?[ii] 3 ?V (or *?[ii]h 3 V ?) ‘throat; to swallow’: rejected. 

105. *?U 3 V ‘to hear’ (— > ‘ear’): rejected. 

106. * < i|ra?V (= **i|g|ya?V) ‘to grow, to become’: weak. 

107. *?[ae]bU ‘female breast, bosom’: possible. 

108. *WCu[?V]PV (or *£VCyu[?V]PV) ‘salt’: weak. 

109. *?AcV (= *?Ac[U] ??) ‘to blow, to yawn’: rejected. 

110. * S’ VcVLV ‘guts’: weak. 

111. *VawcV (or * < iacwV) ‘light of the sun before/on the horizon’: rejected. 

112. * < iacV ‘bush, shrubs, forest’: weak. 

113. *VucE (or *?ucV) ‘to exhange, to compensate; compensation’ (— > ‘trade’, 

‘revenge’): weak. 

1 14. **iadV ‘limit, edge’ ? (— ► ‘up to, until, towards’): possible. 

115. * < i[o]dU ‘to go’: weak. 

1 16. **LudV ‘to follow, to pursue’ (— > ‘to repeat, to continue’): possible. 

117. * < i[ 2 e]go ‘to drink’: rejected. 

118. *?se[ya]gV ‘fat’: weak. 

1 19. *[?]ogUlV (or *H 2 oqUlV) ‘offspring, child, young’: possible. 

120. *?okV (or *?oKV ?) ‘to listen’ or ‘ear’: possible. 

121. *£ayka ‘to move (quickly), to jump’: weak. 

122. *?aKo ‘water’: possible. 

123. *[?]oki ‘sharp point/edge’: possible. 

124. *VuKa (or *?ukV?a or *?AwuKa or *?AwuKV?a) ‘to see’, ‘eye’: weak. 

125. *?EKV[ 3 ]V ‘to peck, to prick (of birds and other animals)’: rejected. 

126. *?A1V (= *ValE or *?ali) ‘height, top’, ‘to climb, to go up’: strong. 


127. * < L[a]lV ‘to burn (esp. sacrifices), to use magic means (sacrifices, magic formula, 
etc.) to produce a particular result’: possible. 

128. *?[a]lU ‘to know’: possible. 

129. *?ol~V (= *?orii ?) ‘to starve, to die; dead’: possible. 

130. *i|g[se]l[?]u (or *r[2e]I[?]u) ‘reddish, yellow, brown’: possible. 

131. *‘iul < ie ‘recent’ (— > ‘young, new’): rejected. 

131a. *i[gol[Vy]V ‘leaf : possible. 

131b. *[ < T]aL[o]PV ‘weak, exhausted’: rejected. 

132. *?al|lii ‘a liliaceous plant (garlic, onion, aloe, or sim.)’: possible. 

133. *?aIVqV ‘to bend’, ‘a bend, a joint in the limb’: possible. 

134. *‘iini[e] ‘to suck, to swallow’: strong. 

135. *T[o]mdE ‘to stand upright, to rise’: strong. 

136. *?omKe ‘(part of the) neck’: rejected. 

137. *[l]orng|nV ‘to sleep, to lose consciousness/remembrance of: weak. 

138. *?6ynV ‘to see, to look; eye’: possible. 

138a. *?in[V]qV ‘to live’: possible. 

139. **10113 V ‘fang, stake’ — > ‘weapon (dart, javelin, or the like)’: possible. 

140. **LupV ‘to take wing’, ‘up’: possible. 

141. *£VPVRV ‘(river-)bank’: rejected. 

142. *!VpVRV ‘wild boar’: possible. 

143. *?ArV ‘dry, arid’: possible. 

144. **iiR[i] ‘(male, young) big ungulate’: weak. 

145. *WRV ‘run’: rejected. 

146. *?arH 2 |wu ~ **j"aH 2 ru ‘back, loins’: possible. 

147. **iurVKV ‘to flee’: strong. 

148. **ia[r]V ~ **iaRi ‘without, no’: weak. 

148a. *?[gerV ‘raincloud, rain’: strong. 

149. *7arK[u] ‘sinew’ ([in descendant lgs.] — »■ ‘bowstring, bow’): possible. 

150. *?EwVSV ‘grass’: rejected. 

151. **ies[i] ‘to make, to do’: rejected. 

152. **LOsV(-Ka) ‘tree’: strong. 

153. *S"atU ‘fish’: weak. 

154. *?atV ‘to throw, to cast’ : possible. 

155. **LOtV ‘to breathe, to blow’: possible. 

155a. **LUtV ‘hand’ (‘palm of the hand with fingers’ ?): possible. 

156. *?awyV ‘to shout, to speak’: possible. 

157. *£aw[oy]V ‘to spend the night, to sleep’: possible. 

158. **Luy[h]V ‘to bend’: possible. 

159. * < iazV[q]V ‘wedge’: rejected. 

160. *?i3V ‘strong, healthy’: rejected. 

160a. *?a3V ‘white, bright’ : strong. 

161. *bA adjectival particle forming compound (— >■ derived) names of quality bearers, 
nomina possessoris, and animal names: possible. 

162. *bV particle forming compound (— ► derived) nomina abstracta: possible. 

163. *bo?V ‘to go’: strong. 

164. *bu?V ‘to blow, to inflate’, (— >• ?) ‘to swell’: strong. 


165. *bicV ~ *bicV ‘small, little’: possible. 

166. *bVc[V]RV ‘to cut’: rejected. 

167. *boca ‘(young) deer’: possible. 

168. *bicV ‘to cut, to crumble, to crush’: weak. 

169. *bVg[c]V ‘bad, wicked’: rejected. 

170. *b[u]c'iV ‘to tear to pieces’: weak. 

170a. *bAdV ‘many, multitude’: strong. 

171. *bed[e] ‘to pierce, to prick’: possible. 

172. *[b]edV ‘back of something’: possible. 

173. *bodV ‘body, belly’: possible. 

174. *bud[V]W ‘to be thick’: possible. 

174a. *bud[h|?]E ‘to plait’ (— > ‘net’): rejected. 

174b. *bad[V]XV ‘to be open’: possible. 

175. *bud[V]X|qV ‘to be away; to feel, to pay attention; to be excited, cheerful’ 

176. *baHgii (= *bah|hgii) ‘forearm’: weak. 

177. *bu[y]gE (more plausible than *buHgE) ‘stinging insect’: rejected. 

177a. *bAga (or *bAxa) ‘to be(come) visible, to appear’: weak. 

178. *b[i]ge ‘much’: rejected. 

179. *beha (or *baha) ‘to shine, to be bright’: strong. 

180. *baH 2 V ‘to tie, to bind’: strong. 

181. *buHi ‘to grow, to appear, to become’: strong. 

182. *b[o]ka ‘to put out, to throw out’ (— > ‘to sweep out’): possible. 

183. *buk[o] (or *buk[o]?V ?) ‘to run, to run away’: weak. 

184. *b[o'i]ka ‘to heat, to roast, to burn’: weak. 

185. *bukE£V ‘billy goat, ram’: possible. 

186. *baKa (or *bag|k[V]?a ?) ‘stick, sprout; (?) to sprout’: possible. 

187. *baKV ‘to look’: possible. 

188. *buKa ‘bovines’: possible. 

189. *buKV (or *biiKV ?) ‘cheek’: weak. 

190. *buka ‘a stinging insect’ (‘gadfly, gnat’): possible. 

191. *biiK[a] ‘to bend; bent’: possible. 

192. *b[ohi]ko ‘to be bright, white, light; to shine white’: weak. 

193. *bUKcE (or *bUH 2 aKcE ?) ‘to tie’, ‘rope, tie’: weak. 

194. *ba_L[ii] ‘bad, harm’: possible. 

195. *bilU ‘to be warm, to burn; warm’: possible. 

196. *buLV ‘to stir up (liquid); turbid’: strong. 

197. *b[u]l|lv ‘a shoot’: rejected. 

197a. *bVLV ‘dove’: rejected. 

198. *biLu?e (= *bilu?e ?) ‘cloud’: possible. 

199. *bVLV?a ‘to blow, to inflate’: strong. 

200. *baLW ‘blind’: strong. 

201. *bal[i]ya (or *bal[i]y[U] ?) ‘to swallow; throat’: strong. 

202. *bVL[h]V ‘leaf, leaves, green plants’: strong. 

203. *beLkVgV (= *belkVgV ?) ‘belly, waist’: possible. 

204. *bal[i]ka ‘to shine’: strong. 


205. *bVli?|?[V]ku ‘to beat, to strike’: strong. 

206. *ba[Ln]V ‘’to wash, to immerse’: rejected. 

207. *bElV ‘to boil, to cook’: rejected. 

208. *bihl| IV ‘to shout, to call, to speak’: weak. 

209. *baHlV ‘pain, wound’: possible. 

210. *b[o?i]l|lV ‘to swell’: possible. 

211. *bolX[a] ‘tail, penis’: strong. 

212. *ben|nV ‘younger relative’: possible. 

213. *bVhsenyV ‘bone (especially bone of limb)’: rejected. 

214. *baentV (~ *bsendV ?) ‘to tie’: possible. 

215. *bogE ‘bosom, breast (front of body)’: rejected. 

216. *ben[7|X]i ‘head’: rejected. 

217. *bupga ‘thick; to swell’: strong. 

217a. *bEPtV ‘lip(s), mouth’: rejected. 

218. *bVqa (= *boqa ?) ‘side of body, side’: possible. 

219. *bArV ‘earth, land, dust’: possible. 

219a. *beRV ‘mud, swamp’: possible. 

219b. *borV ‘mountain, hill’: strong. 

220. *buRu (or *buRii) ‘to break’: strong. 

221. *bUrV ‘to turn round, to rotate’: possible. 

222. *buRV (or *biirV) ‘flint’ (— > ‘to cut/carve with a flint’): strong. 

223. *buRV, *buR[V-][K]V ‘storm, stormy wind’: strong. 

224. *ba[?]eri ‘to hold, to take’: possible. 

225. *bU?RV (probably *bo?RV) ‘to dig; a pit, well’: possible. 

225a. *b[A]£VrV ‘ungulate’: weak. 

225b. *bohrV ‘loose earth, dust’: rejected. 

226. *bUhRV ‘to be light (of color)’: rejected. 

227. *bV[h]RV ‘to blow, to inflate, (— > ?) to swell’: possible. 

228. *[b]uXrV ‘back, rear’: possible. 

229. *bar?V ‘to give’: strong. 

230. *berE?a ‘to give birth to; child’: strong. 

231. *bu|ur[?]V ‘lock of hair, down’: strong. 

232. *bar*ia ‘leaf, bud’: possible. 

233. *boruW (or *baRuW) ‘trunk’ (—> ‘log’): weak. 

234. *bori[y]U ‘loose earth, dust, (?) sand’: strong. 

235. *bArh[e] ‘to shine’: strong. 

235a. *bAr[h]V ‘to be hungry, to want’: rejected. 

236. *borHu ‘belly, internal organs’: rejected. 

237. *buruHV ‘eyebrow, eyelash’: strong. 

238. *barqV (~ *barXV) ‘to go, to go away, to step’: strong. 

239. *buryi ‘to cover’: strong. 

240. *bVR?ucV ‘belly’: rejected. 

241. *bAR[V]dV ‘to pass; way, road’: weak. 

242. *bur[u]dV[g]V (~ *bar[u]dV[g]V ?) ‘facial hair, animal’s body hair, down’ 

243. *b[i]rVgE ‘high, tali’: strong. 


244. *b[E]RV[k]V ‘knee’: strong. 

244a. *b[i]Rk|gV (~ *p[i]Rk|gV ?) ‘to dig’: possible. 

245. *buR[u]k|gV ‘to run, to jump’: rejected. 

246. *boraKE (or *bora KE) ‘to fall, to fell, to throw’: weak. 

247. *bVR[V]kae ‘to flash, to shine’: strong. 

248. *baRmV ‘a stinging insect’: possible. 

249. *baR3V ‘to be uneven, rough; to bristle’: possible. 

250. *b[A]rV ‘old’: possible. 

250a. *borV or *burV ‘sun, day’: possible. 

251. *bor[a] ‘to pierce, to bore’: strong. 

252. *buru(-KU) [or *bufu(-KU)] ‘to spurt, to gush forth, to boil, to seethe’: strong. 

253. *b[u]Xra ‘watercourse, river’: possible. 

254. *bar?V ‘big, much, thick’: weak. 

255. *bof[?]u ‘brown, yellow’: strong. 

256. *bV[f][V]dV ‘hail’ (and ‘snow’ ?): weak. 

257. *b[i]f[iiw]qa (or *b[i]r[uw]qa ?) ‘edible fruit’: possible. 

258. *bUs|cV ‘to rub, to grind’: rejected. 

259. *bu?[V]sV ‘bad’: possible. 

260. *busV ‘to uncover, to peel’, ‘bare’: weak. 

261. *bUs?V (or *bUsyV) ‘breath’: rejected. 

262. *b[a]tV ‘= luck, good’: rejected. 

262a. *botV ‘dust’ or ‘ashes’: weak. 

262b. *b[a2]gUtV ‘thigh, (calf of) leg’: possible. 

263. *bit[V]?[V] ‘to hold’: possible. 

264. *bot[ < i]V ‘to grow’ (intr.), ‘to sprout’: possible. 

265. *batV ‘cold; to feel cold, to freeze’: strong. 

265a. *bitV ‘louse’: ‘louse’ ‘= parasitic insect’: possible. 

266. *butV ‘to cut, to cut off, to cut into pieces’: possible. 

267. *butV ‘pistachio (and terebinth) tree/nut’: possible. 

268. *ba?|gutV ‘to kick, to push’: rejected. 

268a. *bag[V]t[i] ‘to be quick; sudden’: weak. 

269. *b[u][g]atV ‘to hunt, to try to catch’: weak. 

270. *bu[w]tV ‘lower part of the body’: possible. 

271. *b[i]xa (or *b[i]qa, *biiyx|qa ?) ‘to beat, to strike’: rejected. 

272. *bayV ‘place’, ‘to be somewhere’: possible. 

273. *bVyV (or *bVy?V) ‘bee’: strong. 

274. *be?yV ‘body, self ([in descendant languages] — »■ ‘soul’): possible. 

275. *baXyV *baXi ‘abundant’: weak. 

276. *b[e]yXV ‘to tear, to cut to pieces’: weak. 

277. *b[e]*iVhyV ‘to pour’: weak. 

278. *buzV ‘insect’: possible. 

279. *b[a]hzV ‘to strike, to thump’: possible. 

280. *baze ‘to ripen, to be cooked’, ‘to cook, (?) to prepare’: possible. 

281. *bUyzV ‘fur-bearing animal’: rejected. 

281a. *bo3V ‘hair, feather’: rejected. 

282. *be3U(-[qV]) *be3[V]qV ‘big, high’: weak. 


283. *bEr[V] 3 V ‘ungulate animal’ (later ‘deer’ and sim.): rejected. 

284. *cE ‘that’: possible. 

285. *cuqbE or *ciiqbV ‘to carry away, to throw away’: rejected. 

286. *cor|xcV or *cor|xcV ‘to sweep, to rub/scrape away/off: possible. 

287. *c[u]dV ‘outstretched hand, span’: possible. 

288. *cod < iU ‘defect, evil deed’: possible. 

289. *CegV ‘breast, milk’: rejected. 

290. *cokV ‘shelter, primitive house’: possible. 

291. * Co [k][u] ‘small, little’: rejected. 

292. *c|ciKaKa ‘to tickle’: rejected. 

293. *cikPV ‘branch, shoot of a plant’: rejected. 

294. *C[a]lV (= *c[a]lV ?) ‘cold’: rejected. 

295. *cele ‘to peel’: rejected. 

296. *cE 1V ‘to be quiet, to wait’: rejected. 

297. *col|lV ‘to be/make empty’: rejected. 

297a. *caXolV (or *coXalV ?) ‘to wind (round something), to tie’: weak. 

298. *ciTxV ‘to defecate’: possible. 

299. *coLKV (~ *coLkV) ‘to advance with effort (to creep, to crawl, to climb, etc.)’ 

300. *calqV ‘thin, lean; reduced (as body)’: rejected. 

301. *cal[E?]o ‘to split, to cut’: weak. 

302. *c[i?A]mV (or *ciyAmV) ‘grass’: weak. 

303. *c[o]mH 2 E ‘to smear’: rejected. 

303a. *cVmqU ‘fruit, berry’: rejected. 

304. *c[u]hcV or *c[u]ncV ‘to crawl’: rejected. 

305. *C|CundV ‘mouse’: possible. 

306. *cuqV ‘to know’ (<— ‘to have seen’ ?), ‘to see’: rejected. 

307. * cup W ‘finger, knuckle’: possible. 

308. *c|c[a]gKV ‘to break’: possible. 

309. *cVpV ‘to cover’, ‘roof, plated cover’: rejected. 

310. *cEqV (= *caqV ?) ‘to jump’: weak. 

310a. *ciqU ‘small rodent (mouse ?)’: rejected. 

311. *carV (or *carV) ‘hard/firm, hardened crust, hard/rough surface’: possible. 

312. *cERV ‘small, little’: possible. 

313. *cURV ‘to move (go, swim, fly) away (or from one place to another)’: rejected. 

314. *c[awe]rV ‘finger, hand’: rejected. 

315. *caARV ‘to burn something’: rejected. 

316. *coH 2 [V]rV ‘to drip, to flow; drops’: possible. 

317. *cVR[V]yV ^ *cVyRV ‘to freeze, to feel cold’, ‘fever’: rejected. 

317a. *cuR[k]a ‘to watch, to watch over’: rejected. 

318. *c[a]rV ‘dirt, dung, rubbish; to defecate (cacare), to excrete’: possible. 

319. *cEtV ‘to cover’: rejected. 

320. *cowV ‘to look at, to look after, to protect/guard’: possible. 

321. *caw[h]V ‘to cover, to dress, to put/hang (on)’: possible. 

322. *ca|o%u ‘to mix, to deal with each grain (one by one), to separate them’: rejected. 

323. *c[i]xE ‘to sweep, to rub/scratch away’: possible. 


324. *ca or *ca (= *Hic|ca ?) a marker of relative constructions (in the descendant 
languages — > suffix of adjectives and singulatives [— > diminutives]): rejected. 

325. *cae ‘away, downward’: rejected. 

326. *c|ci or *c|ci a marker of verbal frequentivity/iterativity: rejected. 

327. *coXibV ‘belly’: rejected. 

328. *cu|ub[V]gV ‘dip in’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘to dye’), to immerse’: 

329. *cudV ‘to point with a finger’ — > ‘true, just’: rejected. 

330. *ca[?E]dV ‘to hunt for, to wish’: rejected. 

331. *ca < i[i]dV ‘to advance with effort (run, climb, etc.), to step’: rejected. 

332. *cuyya ‘thorn’: weak. 

333. *cak[E] < iV ‘snow, ice-crust, hoarfrost’: weak. 

334. *cEkV ‘small’: possible. 

335. *cE 1V (*ceylv ?) ‘to jump’: rejected. 

336. *culV ‘stalk, stick’: rejected. 

337. *c[ii]TU (or *ciKJ ?) ‘entire, intact, pure’: weak. 

338. *cVLV ‘to bend, to incline’: rejected. 

338a. *cu < i[V]l| IV ‘small’: rejected. 

339. *culjlyV ‘to prick, to wound’: rejected. 

340. *cilHA (=*cilhA ?) ‘to be wet/moist’, ‘moisture (water, etc.)’: possible. 

340a. *c[i]LhV ‘(char)coal, soot’: rejected. 

341. *cEmV (= *cEmV ?) ‘to maim, to torment’: rejected. 

342. *c[i]mV ‘eyelid’, ‘to blink (eyes)’: weak. 

343. *camgV ‘cold’: rejected. 

344. *cEmpV (or *c- ?) ‘bent, crooked’: rejected. 

345. *cenV ‘to tie, to bind, to plait’: weak. 

346. *c|caij|hV ‘to be of a shining white’, ‘to be bright’, ‘moon’: rejected. 

347. *caPV (or *caPKV,_*caKPV ?) ‘stalk, pointed stick, spear’: rejected. 

348. *c[i]pV ‘navel’: rejected. 

349. *cipu(-rV) ‘small bird’: weak. 

350. *coPV ‘to watch, to look out, to spy’: rejected. 

351. *cap[‘i]a ‘to beat, to strike, to chop’: weak. 

352. *cEpW ([as.] > *cEbW) ‘finger’: weak. 

353. *cVqV ‘to make dirty; to revile’: rejected. 

354. *coq[a] < iE ‘to beat/hit (someone), to hurt; pain’: weak. 

355. *caq[a][l]V (or *caqV) ‘elbow, part of a limb’: rejected. 

356. *c[A]RV (= *c[A]RV ?) ‘to cross’, ‘across, over’: rejected. 

357. *corV (-• *cawrV - 1 *carwV ?) ‘tip, top, edge’: rejected. 

358. *cUrV ‘narrow’: weak. 

359. *casrrV ‘to be in pain, to feel hurt, to resent’: rejected. 

360. *c[u]grV ‘to be small, to diminish’: rejected. 

361. *ca[h]u|urV ‘to circle, to twist’: rejected. 

362. *cUyrV ‘to rot, to stink, to be spoiled/bitter’: rejected. 

363. ’’‘cfeji'tajTV ‘(stinging) insect’: weak. 

364. *cirya ‘to scratch/chisel, to scrape (an object), to fashion’: possible. 

365. *caR[i]pV (~ -b- ?) ‘to scratch/chisel, to hew, to cut’: rejected. 


366. *corV (or *corV) ‘to drop, to trickle’: weak. 

367. *cU'ifV ‘to squeeze out (liquid), to strain, to sift’: rejected. 

368. *cotV ‘drop’: rejected. 

369. *c[ii]tV (or *c[ii]tV ?) ‘to throw, to fling, to pour’: rejected. 

370. *cAHtV *cAHdV (= *cA < i|htV *cA < i|hdV ?) ‘red’: rejected. 

371. *coQtV ‘dark, darkness’: rejected. 

372. *cowV ‘to inform, to make know/hear’: rejected. 

373. *cVxU ‘to be alive/healthy’: rejected. 

374. *ca dem. pronoun stem of distant deixis: strong. 

375. *c[u] ‘that of ..., that which’: rejected. 

376. *c|cibV ‘stem of a tree, log’: rejected. 

377. *cubV ‘to bend, to turn, to turn back, to give back’: rejected. 

378. *c[a?u]ba ‘cloth, sack’: rejected. 

379. *cayVd[V]yV ‘female breast’: rejected. 

380. *cEgV ‘to prick’ (— > ‘to butt’): rejected. 

381. *ca[h]a ‘to stop, to stand (up)’ (— > ‘to raise’): rejected. 

382. *cika ‘to prick, to split’: rejected. 

383. *cikU ‘the laterally projecting part of the base of limbs (shoulder, hip)’ ( 
‘thigh’): possible. 

384. *cAk[U] ‘to prick, to gouge’: weak. 

385. *c[o]KV ‘much, heavy’: rejected. 

386. *cA 1V ‘stalk’: weak. 

387. *calV ‘to beat, to knock down, to fell’: strong. 

388. *cA 1V (=* cAlU ?) ‘to plait’: rejected. 

389. *celV ‘to pull away, to take away/out, to rob’: weak. 

390. *cuLV ‘stalk, branch, twig’: weak. 

391. *[c]V?LV(-b A) ‘canine’: rejected. 

391a. *cAlVmV ‘orifice, pit’, or ‘breach’: strong. 

392. *cal[U]gV ‘snow’ or ‘hoarfrost’: rejected. 

393. *c[i]ma ‘to be(come) quiet, silent’: rejected. 

394. * coma ‘wild bovine’: strong. 

395. *camVcV ‘to get sour/foul’: rejected. 

396. *cinV ‘other’: possible. 

397. *c[a]ndV ‘to rise, to emerge, to jump (up)’: rejected. 

398. *ciir)V ‘smoke, smell’: rejected. 

399. *c|cag[k]a ‘to push, to kick, to stumble’: rejected. 

400. *co[r)t]V ‘to step, to tread’: rejected. 

401. *capa ‘sack, vessel’: weak. 

402. *cEqV (or *cExV) ‘to chop, to cut’: rejected. 

403. *caqyV (or *caxyV ?) ‘to shine’: rejected. 

404. *cU[?]RV ‘to stand, to stand up’: rejected. 

405. *c[i]gRV (~ *c[i]R[g]V ?) ‘to stop up, to thrust, to plug up, to dam’: weak. 

406. *cAr[h][u] ‘to spread, to scatter’: weak. 

407. *cERH 2 V (= *cER < TV ?) ‘to stick in, to gouge, to chisel’: rejected. 

408. *cVRuqV (or *cVRiiqV ?) ‘to pile up, to put /lay, on/over’: rejected. 

409. *c[i]RkV ‘pus, rotten/filthy liquid’: rejected. 


410. *c[a]w[u][ry]V ‘bull, calf : rejected. 

411. *ci[t]V ‘to clean, (?) to wipe’: rejected. 

412. *cit[h]a ‘small bird’: rejected. 

413. *cAyV ‘to bring, to give’: rejected. 

414. *cae|abV[y]V ‘horned animal’: rejected. 

415. *cVcx|yV ‘to be bom; young of an animal’: rejected. 

416. *caydV ‘to strike, to beat’: rejected. 

417. *cuka (or *cuk[V?]V ?) ‘to shut, to stop up, to cover’: rejected. 

418. *c|cikV ‘to cut (fine)’: possible. 

419. *cE < ikV (or *ca < iikV ?) ‘to squeeze, to make tight’: rejected. 

420. *calV (or *ca?lV ?) ‘feeble, lean; to shrink, to diminish’: rejected. 

421. *c[o]l[w]V ‘shadow, shade, dark’: rejected. 

422. *cVV|h|hmV ‘to taste, to eat’: rejected. 

423. *cam[V]xV ‘sour, bitter’: possible. 

424. *ciwnV(-cV) ‘smell, stench, malodorous sweat’: rejected. 

425. *cen?V ‘narrow, thin’: weak. 

426. *c[a]ncV (or *c[a]ncV) ‘tip, (back) end’: rejected. 

427. *cUpV(RV) ‘fingernail, claw’: possible. 

428. *cVpV(-tV) ‘thong’: weak. 

429. *ci'iPa ‘branch, bough, rod’: rejected. 

430. *cE[y]pV ‘to sink, to immerse; to swim; to flow’: rejected. 

431. *c[a]rV ‘to cut’: strong. 

432. *cERV ‘to look after, to guard’: weak. 

433. *curV ‘to take, to seize, to carry’: rejected. 

434. *[c][u]RV ‘to soil, to stain; dirty’: weak. 

435. *cVRV ‘flintstone, knife’: possible. 

436. *cohrV ‘vessel’, (<— ?) ‘basket’: weak. 

437. *cuh[V]rV ‘top, edge, highest point’: rejected. 

438. *cVR?V ‘hoarfrost’, (— >) ‘frozen, soil’: weak. 

439. *cER[hse] ‘heavy, hard, stiff, difficult’: rejected. 

440. *curtV ‘soot’: rejected. 

441. *cu < ifV ~ *cur < iV ‘to see, to look’: possible. 

442. *cawxV ‘to cry, to exclaim’ (— > ‘to praise’, ‘fame’): rejected. 

443. *ciicV (or *s- ?) ‘clean; to clean’: rejected. 

444. *cEckV ‘to crush, to split’: rejected. 

445. *cUdV ‘to be weak, to be damaged, to be weary’: rejected. 

446. *cVd[i](-ka[?V]) ‘to wait, to stay, to have leisure’: weak. 

447. *codhV ‘to break (especially a body part), to strike’: weak. 

448. *cVd[V]qV *cVqVdV ‘to tear, to split’: rejected. 

449. *cih[i] ‘to carry, to bring’ (—> ‘to give’): weak. 

450. *cEk < iV ^ *cEk < iV, (?) *-rV ‘to step, to tramp, to trample down’: weak. 

45 1 . *cuKV ‘thorn, point (— > blade), summit’: possible. 

452. *calV ‘to pour (out)’: weak. 

453. *co[h]lV ‘similar, as; alone, one of two’: rejected. 

453a. *cumV ‘to lift, to raise’: rejected. 

454. *cixmV ‘fat’: weak. 


455. *c[i]?[a]na ‘to recognize, to know’: rejected. 

455a. *[c]un[?]V ‘to sound, to utter’: rejected. 

456. *ca|EncV ‘large’ (— > ‘high, broad’): rejected. 

457. *[c]e[p]V ‘heel, foot, part of leg’: rejected. 

458. *c[ay]PV ‘vegetation, leaves’: rejected. 

459. *ciP[V] < iae (= *cib[V] < iae ?) ‘to eat one’s fill, to feed to saiety’: rejected. 

460. *ca[7U]RV ‘the calf of the leg, sha nk ’: rejected. 

461. *cu < TrV ‘vulva, vagina’: rejected. 

462. *cUrV (or *cUry|?V ?) ‘to twist, to twine’: rejected. 

463. *catV ‘to separate, to scatter’: rejected. 

464. *ci[w]tV (or *ciitV ?) ‘to split’: rejected. 

465. *ca|o[t]V ‘to deviate from the right path, to incline, to be lame/crooked’: rejected. 

466. *[c][u]w[?]V ‘meat’: rejected. 

467. *cVxV ‘to bum (trans.)’: possible. 

468. *cVy[ < i]V ‘girl, (younger) sister’: rejected. 

469. *cA£V ‘to perish, to die’: rejected. 

470. *c[a]?bV ‘fish’: rejected. 

471. *cabV?V ‘war’, ‘warriors, host’: rejected. 

472. *caebW ‘shoulder’: rejected. 

473. *c[i]bVyV (or *c[i]bViV) ‘hyena’: rejected. 

474. *cobVRV ‘to press together, to squeeze (as in a fist)’: rejected. 

475. *cV[C][V]qV (possibly *cVc[V]qV ~ *cVcqV) ‘to squeeze, to press’: rejected. 

476. *cVhwV ‘to burn’ (vt.) [— > ‘to warm (of the sun)’, ‘heat of the day’]: rejected. 

477. *coK < iE (= *cog < i‘E ?) ‘to sink to a kneeling/squating/lying position’: rejected. 

478. *ciKV ‘tight, narrow, dense’: weak. 

479. *cU?[il][w]V ‘little, small’: rejected. 

480. *c|cVhLV ‘to be compassionate, to have mercy’: rejected. 

481. *c[i]l[V] < iV ‘side of body’ (— > ‘rib’), ‘hip’ (— > ‘thigh’): rejected. 

482. *cVH 2 [V]mV ‘daylight’: weak. 

483. *cVm[V][s]V ‘to interlace, to plait/tie/wrap together’: weak. 

484. *c[a]n?V ‘to give birth’: rejected. 

485. *cEN[V]qV ‘to press, to squeeze’: rejected. 

486. *cUntV ‘mucus’: rejected. 

487. *cagU ‘to jump, to skip’: rejected. 

488. *capV ‘clay, mud; to smear, to moisten’: rejected. 

488a. *caPV ‘to grasp, to take’: rejected. 

489. *cipa (or *ciipa ?) ‘to be narrow, to be compressed’: rejected. 

490. *capV?E ‘filth, dung’, ‘rubbish’: rejected. 

491. *cVPRV ‘to twist, to plait’: rejected. 

492. *cEPtV ‘to close, to shut, to hide’: rejected. 

492a. *cehrV ‘back’: rejected. 

493. *car < iV (or *carU < iV ?) ‘female breast, udder’: rejected. 

494. *cer[V]XV ‘wing, feather’: weak. 

495. *cotV ‘mud’: rejected. 

496. *d[i] marker of imperfective: possible. 

497. *di*Le (~ *dVHU) ‘to put, to place’: possible. 


498. *dubV ‘edge, end’: possible. 

498a. *dVbV ‘hill’: rejected. 

499. *dub[?]V ‘back, hinder part, tail’: strong. 

500. *dAdV ‘thick, fat, large’: possible. 

501. *didV ‘large, big’: strong. 

502. *dod[H 2 ]V ‘point, nipple; to suck (mother’s breast)’: rejected. 

503. *d[ii]ga ‘suitable, fit, good’: rejected. 

504. *dahgU ‘to watch, to look at’: weak. 

505. *dagorV ‘shoulder-blade as part of the back’: rejected. 

506. *dVwg|yV ‘sun, day, morning’ (— > ‘to be bright as sun’): weak. 

507. *di[h]a ‘to look at’ : possible. 

508. *d[E]Hja ‘with’, ‘together with’: possible. 

509. *de[?o]He ‘to make, to do’: possible. 

510. *daka ‘back [dorsum], back [rear], behind’: rejected. 

511. *d[A]k[o] (~ *d[A]g[o] ?) ‘to bum’ (trans.): rejected. 

512. *duk[U] ‘to strike, to beat’ : rejected. 

513. *dEHik[a] (= *dE‘iika ?) ‘to pierce, to dig’: rejected. 

514. *dak[V]?U ‘(young of an) equid’: rejected. 

515. *dik[E]y[U] ‘to rumple, to knead, to press’: weak. 

516. *daKV ‘small, thin, short’ : possible. 

517. *dikV ‘edible cereals/fruit’ : rejected. 

518. *doKe ‘to observe, to learn’: possible. 

519. *d[U][K]V ‘to approach; near’: rejected. 

520. * dal y ‘tasty, sweet’ : weak. 

521. *d[i]la (= *d[i]la ?) ‘sunshine, daylight, bright’: strong. 

522. *duli ‘fire, heat’: strong. 

523. *daHlV *dalHV ‘to lick’: possible. 

524. *du|u[H|w|y]lV ‘itching, lust’ : rejected. 

525. *dulUhV ‘to be mad, to be stupid’: possible. 

526. *dalqa|U ‘wave’: strong. 

527. *dseLbV ‘to gouge, to dig, to cut through’: strong. 

528. *dasL[k]a ‘to prick’: weak. 

529. *deL[V]PV ‘to flap, to wave, to fly’ (<— ‘to flap wings’ ?): rejected. 

530. *dVlqa ‘feather’: rejected. 

531. *dEgla (= *diigla ?) ‘bush(es), shrubs, thicket’ : rejected. 

532. *duHl|lV ‘dust’: possible. 

533. *deql|lV ‘(to be) thin’: rejected. 

534. *do|Al[V] < iV (= *dAlo < i‘V or *dAl[V] < io ?) ‘to push, to press, (?) to squeeze’ 

535. *damV or *damVdV ‘to cover, to close’: possible. 

536. *dAmV ‘steam, mist, dust’ : possible. 

537. *dumV ‘to be motionless, to be silent, to be quiet’: strong. 

537a. *dVmV (= *dimV ?) ‘to breathe, to blow’: rejected. 

538. *d[u]hmV ~ *d[u]mhV ‘(to be) dark’: strong. 

538a. *dUm[?]u (= *d[o]m[?]u ?) or *dUqwV (= *d[o]qwV ?) ‘big tree’: weak. 

539. *dim[V]qa|ae ‘rubbish, dirt, animal feces’: possible. 


540. *dVmPV (= *dVmpV ?) ‘back, rear part, tail’: rejected. 

541. *d[o]nV ‘flat, low’, (— > ?) ‘lowland’: weak. 

542. *donV ‘to cut’: strong. 

543. *dunV (or *diinV) ‘to stream, to flow’: strong. 

544. *doncE ‘large, heavy’ (of load): rejected. 

545. *doga ‘to cover’: weak. 

546. *dug[g] a ‘to be quiet, silent’: possible. 

547. *daPV(KV) ‘to stick (adhere), to glue’: possible. 

548. *dupV ‘to squat, to hide’: rejected. 

549. *d[a?i]pV ‘to wave, to flap, to wave the wings, to fly; wing’: rejected. 

550. *dap[V]yV ~ *dayopV ‘to push’: rejected. 

551. *dEqV ‘earth’: possible. 

552. *duqV or *diiqV ‘to blow, to breathe, to shake’ (— > ‘to smoke’): rejected. 

553. *diqa ‘goat’ (or ‘ruminant’): rejected. 

554. *dArV ‘to have a suitable size (to be just right), to have enough room for’ 

555. *duri (or *dori ?) ‘to go, to walk’: rejected. 

556. *durV (or *durV) ‘hole, hollow’: possible. 

557. *duRV ‘log, stick’: rejected. 

558. *dURV ‘deaf: rejected. 

558a. *d[u]rV ‘woods, bush(es)’: weak. 

559. *diirV or *dUrE ‘intestines, heart’: rejected. 

560. *da?urV ‘to stand, to stay’: rejected. 

560a. *degarV ‘hill, summit’: rejected. 

561. *da[y]RV *da[y]RE ‘to be(come) stiff, firm’: possible. 

562. *der?[i] ‘to thrust back, to drive away’: possible. 

563. *d[u]r[?]V ‘dirt’: possible. 

564. *dar[VH]V ‘to hold, to hold fast, to fasten’: strong. 

565. *dur[Vh]V ‘to deceive, (?) to outwit’ : rejected. 

565a. *darHV or *daHrV ‘path, way’: strong. 

566. *der[?]ubV ‘way, path’: possible. 

567. *daRuga or *dariiga ‘to tremble, to shake’: weak. 

568. *daeR[h]Vga ~ *daeR[h]VkV ‘to walk, to run; road’: possible. 

569. *dVR[EyVg|KV ‘sediment (in food), refuse’: rejected. 

570. *doRkae (~ *doRgse ?) ‘to bend, to turn, to wrap’: strong. 

571. *durV ‘camping site, abode’: rejected. 

572. *du[r]V[g|qV] ‘lamb, kid (of wild ram, etc.)’: possible. 

573. *d[o]r[V]kV ‘to tread, to trample’: possible. 

574. *dVstV ‘moon’: rejected. 

575. *doTgi?u ‘fish’: possible. 

576. *daXwV (~ *dawXV ?) ‘to press, to push’: rejected. 

577. *d[se]wV?|gV ‘wolf or jackal’: rejected. 

578. *dVw[V]yV ‘to be ill/weak, to die’: possible. 

579. *d[oy]a (> *da) ‘place’: strong. 

580. *da[z]V (or *da?[z]V ?) ‘to strike’: rejected. 

581. *g[U] ‘we’ (incl.): weak. 


582. *ga?i or *ga?yV ‘high’: rejected. 

583. *gu?a (or *gu?a) ‘to butt, to stab, to strike’: rejected. 

584. *ga*LU ‘to catch, to take, to receive’: possible. 

585. *gu'iV ‘to perceive, to care’: rejected. 

586. *gabV(-l|lV) ‘head’ (— > ‘top’, ‘skull’): possible. 

587. *gobV ‘plain, (?) earth’: possible. 

588. *gii|ub|pE ‘heap, hump, hunchback’: rejected. 

589. *ga?bV ‘thick, dense; large’: rejected. 

590. *gu[?b]V ‘to bend’: rejected. 

591. *ga'ibV (or *gaybV ?) to hold, to seize; to collect’: possible. 

592. *g[uy]bV ‘to heat’ (— > ‘to cook, to roast, to burn, to dry’): possible. 

593. *g[U]b?V(LV) ‘hill, mountain’: possible. 

594. *[g]abhE ~ *-hb- ‘blunt, weak’: rejected. 

595. *gub[V]RE ~ *guRbV ‘back, back side, nape (of neck)’: rejected. 

596. *gicV ‘to injure, to irritate’: rejected. 

597. *gi[c]V (or *gicV ?) ‘hip, thigh’: rejected. 

598. *gad[a] ‘bank, shore, side of something’: weak. 

599. *gadV ‘(to be) suitable/good; luck’: possible. 

600. *gsedi ‘back part; occiput, nape of neck’: weak. 

601. *gudV (or *giidV ?) ‘to cut, to tear’: weak. 

602. *gudV ~ *gutV ‘belly, middle’: weak. 

602a. *gu[?]dE *gii[?]dV (or *gu[?] 3 E ^ *gu[?] 3 V) ‘to guard, to watch, to be on the 
watch for’: rejected. 

603. *ga[y]di (~ *ga[y]ti ?) ‘kid, young goat’, (?) ‘antelope’: weak. 

603a. *ge[d]usV ‘late, evening’ (— > ‘yesterday’): rejected. 

604. *ga?iigae ‘to covet, to long for’, (— > ?) ‘mate; to copulate’: rejected. 

605. *gEhowyV ‘to go away, to drive away’: weak. 

606. *gokE (= *goki ?) ‘to track’ (— ■> ‘way’), ‘to follow the tracks of: rejected. 

607. *gaKt[a] ‘couple, one of a pair’: weak. 

608. *g|koKE (rV) ‘chest, breast’ [— > (in descendant languages) ‘belly’, ‘heart’]: 

608a. *gawKV ‘long, high, far’: rejected. 

609. *gaLE ‘shout, cry’ (— ► ‘weep’, ‘ask for’): possible. 

610. *galu|u (^ *ga[ya]Lii|u) ‘tortoise’: weak. 

611. *gElV (or *gE?alV) ‘stalk, twig’ (— > ‘stick’, ‘trunk of a tree’): weak. 

612. *giL[U] ‘illness, pain, distress’: possible. 

613. *goLu (or *goyVLu ?) ‘skull’ (— >• in descendant languages: ‘sphere, ball’): 

614. *golV ‘to look, to look for, to wish’: possible. 

615. *goLV ‘foetus, baby’: rejected. 

615a. *goLV ‘tail’: strong. 

615b. *gol|lV ‘to weep’: possible. 

616. *gulE ‘to go (away), to start (going away), to set out’: possible. 

617. *giil A ‘dwelling, house’: possible. 

618. *giiLa ‘to bend, to be crooked’: rejected. 

619. *gohlV ‘fire, glow of coal’, ‘to bum’: possible. 


620. *gowlu (or *gowlu ?) ‘deep; valley’: possible. 

621. *gii|u[?]lV [= *gu|u[?]lV(-mV) ?] or *gu|u[?]LV(-mV) ‘roe deer, antelope, (?) 
goat’: rejected. 

622. *gol[?]V ‘belly, entrails’: weak. 

623. *go_[yV]l£V ‘pudendum muliebre’: rejected. 

624. *gil[h]o ‘to shine, to glitter, to sparkle’: strong. 

625. *gUl[E]hU ‘to be smooth’: strong. 

626. *guL 3 V ‘to bend, to twist’: strong. 

626a. *gAl|lV ‘wind’: possible. 

627. *g[U]IV ‘season without vegetation’ (‘drought, dry season’, ‘winter’): rejected. 
627a. *gUhlE ‘canine animal’: rejected. 

628. *gil[V#]?V[d]V ‘ice, frost; to freeze’ (and *gilV ‘ice, frost’): strong. 

629. *g[A]mV (and *g[A]m < iV ?) ‘altogether, full’: strong. 

630. *g[e]mV ‘strong, firm’ : possible. 

630a. *gUmV ‘heavy’: possible. 

631. *go£mV *gom£V ‘hand, fist’: possible. 

632. *gumbV ‘back, (?) hump’, (— > ?) ‘hill’: possible. 

633. *gim[V]cV ‘to make a grimace with one’s mouth and/or nose’ ([in some 
descendant languages] — » ‘to grin, to smile, to mock, to laugh’): rejected. 

634. *g[u]m[V]cV ‘to incline, to bow, to bend’: possible. 

635. *g[a]m[V]sa ‘waterfoul, bird (a shore bird ?)’: possible. 

636. *gAn|nV ‘to see, to perceive’: strong. 

637. *genu ‘jaw, cheek’: strong. 

637a. *g[o?a]nV ‘much, big’: possible. 

638. *g[o]?inV ‘to beat, to strike’: strong. 

639. *gAHnV ‘to lie, to sleep’: rejected. 

640. *gun[h]i -■ *gu[h]ni (or *gun[?]i - 1 *gu[?]ni) ‘to think’: possible. 

641. *ganhV ‘side (of something), width’: possible. 

642. *gVn[V]bV or *gVn[V]b?V ‘side, edge’: rejected. 

643. *gsendu ‘male’: possible. 

643a. *gondV ‘ant’: possible. 

644. *gan[V][p]V (or *gan[V]pV ?) ‘stem, stalk, stake, stick, picket’: rejected. 

645. *gantV ‘to hold, to carry’: possible. 

646. *gunV or *gunV ‘male genitalia’: possible. 

646a. *gagV (or *ga?ogV ??) ‘flesh of leg, thigh, buttocks’: rejected. 

647. *gu?ag[o] ‘voice; to produce a sound’: rejected. 

648. *g[a]g[X]a ‘to step, to climb’: weak. 

649. *gug[K]E *gur)[K]V ‘nape’ (— > ‘neck’), ‘rear part of the head’: rejected. 

649a. *gog[H]alV *gol[H]VnV ‘forearm’: rejected. 

650. *gup[u] ‘hollow, empty, hole’: weak. 

651. *gae[?]UpV body’: rejected. 

652. *goPKa ‘tooth, hook, sharp stick’: rejected. 

653. *ga[p]sA ‘paw, hand’: weak. 

654. *gEqu ‘to pour, to flow’: rejected. 

655. *gArV ‘hand’: strong. 

655a. *gERV ‘entrails’: possible. 


656. *geRV ‘throat’: possible. 

657. *g[i]rV to hate, to be hostile’: possible. 

657a. *giRV ‘leg, bone of the leg’: rejected. 

657b. *guRV ‘belly, body’: possible. 

657c. *guRV ‘forest’: possible. 

658. *gURV ‘to roll’: strong. 

659. *guRV ‘beast’: possible. 

659a. *gE[?]orV (or *gEworV ??) ‘grain’: rejected. 

659b. *gi?[o]rV ‘grass’: rejected. 

660. *ge[‘iV]rV ‘to fence around, to encircle; enclosed place’: rejected. 

661. *g[u]'irV ‘to look, to look for’: rejected. 

662. *gaehRV -> *gseRhV ‘sunshine, day, light’: strong. 

662a. *gaHrV (= *ga?rV ?) ‘fish’: possible. 

663. *gu[w]rV ‘(roof of a) hut/house; to dwell’: possible. 

664. *gar[£]i ‘old’: rejected. 

665. *gAr?V ‘belly, inside’: possible. 

666. *girW ‘to cut’: strong. 

667. *goR < i‘V ‘hill, (small ?) mountain’: possible. 

668. *gVRse < iu ‘to fell, to strike; to fall in’: weak. 

669. *garHa ‘sharp bough, sharp stick, sharp point’: strong. 

670. *gErHV ‘to belch, to erupt’: weak. 

671. *gorho ‘to be(come) big/long, to grow’: possible. 

671a. *goRHas ‘to track (game), to smell, to hear; ear’: rejected. 

672. *garhV ‘to try to obtain, to wish, to need’: weak. 

673. *gur[E]wV(-TV) ‘young (carnivorous) animal’: rejected. 

673a. *g[o]RVHwV ‘to pound, to scrape, or similar’: possible. 

674. *gur[X]a ‘antelope, male antelope’: possible. 

675. *gorVb|pV ‘to scratch, to scrape’: possible. 

676. *garu[c]a ‘to crush, to break to pieces’ (or *gVRus|cV ‘to crush’): strong. 

676a. *gVRcVqV or *gVRqVcV ‘stinging insect’: rejected. 

677. *gaRdV ‘to encircle, to surround, to fence in’: rejected. 

678. *gE|aRdV ‘to plait, to tie, to gird (to wear something around one’s waist)’: 

679. *guR[k][U] ‘throat’: possible. 

680. *gAr?AmV ‘to scrape, to pound to small pieces, to grind’: possible. 

681. *gUrandV ‘log, trunk of a tree’: weak. 

682. *gERsV (probably *gaR[s|s]V) ‘to congeal, to grow numb, to stiffen’ (— > ‘to 
freeze’): weak. 

683. *gaRzV ‘to stretch’: rejected. 

684. *g[o]R 3 se ‘to feel’: rejected. 

684a. *gArV([q]V) ‘to thunder’: possible. 

685. *gera or *geRya ‘to step, to walk’: rejected. 

686. *gorae ‘hot; to heat; embers’: weak. 

687. *gurV(dV) (or *gurVyV(dV)-) ‘hip, side’: rejected. 

688. *g[e][y]ra (or *g[e]?ira) ‘fire, hearth’: rejected. 

688a. *guf*iE or *gur£V ‘throat, neck’: weak. 


689. *gEyVsV ‘to cast (spear); spear’: rejected. 

690. *g[a]ysV?a ‘to be frightened/sorrowful, to worry’: rejected. 

691. *g[u]sV < ia (~ *g[u]sV?V) ‘to belch, to vomit’: rejected. 

692. *gA?itV ‘body, flesh’: rejected. 

693. *gu[t][H]V ‘small, little’: rejected. 

694. *gata ‘to grasp, to take, to possess’: strong. 

694a. * got V ‘ant, (?) worm’: possible. 

695. *gotV ‘to pull, to draw’: rejected. 

696. *gat < TE ‘to pass through/over, to get through, to cross’: weak. 

697. *gaw < TV (or *gawyV ?) ‘to call’: weak. 

698. * gay V ‘side, outside’: weak. 

699. *goyV ‘man, people’: rejected. 

700. *ga[?]yV ‘to wave one’s hand, to point with one’s hand/finger’ ([later] — > ‘to 
wave to someone, to beckon’): possible. 

701. *gahya ‘to throw, to leave, to let’: weak. 

702. *goXeyV ‘light, sunshine, dawn, daybreak, aurora’: weak. 

703. *gazV ‘slanting, skew, bent’: rejected. 

704. *g[a]zV ‘to go; way, path’: rejected. 

705. *ga23V ‘hair, wool’: possible. 

706. *gu[3]V - 1 *gu[3]E ‘tracks, path; to go, to pass’: weak. 

707. *gU3lu (-' *gUzlu) ‘to laugh, to amuse’: rejected. 

708. *gU3?V ‘to wish, to be hungry’: rejected. 

709. *gubV ‘to plait, to interlace, to wattle’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘to weave’): 

709a. *ga[c]V (or *ga?icV ?) ‘(leafy) branch, bough’: rejected. 

710. * [g]oKVs | cV(-RV) ‘canine’: rejected. 

711. *g[e][l]V(-wV) ‘to rise in waves (of water)’: weak. 

712. *guLV (= *gulV ?) ‘to destroy, to fight; war’: weak. 

713. *gil[U] ‘boy, young man’: possible. 

714. *g[o]Lpa (or *guLpa ?) ‘weak, small’: rejected. 

715. *galV ‘cereals, crops’: rejected. 

716. *[g]amV ‘mouth’, (?) ‘(inside of) cheek’: rejected. 

717. *gVmV ‘darkness, night’: possible. 

718. *gen[a] ‘to be large, to be copious’: possible. 

719. *[g]MV (or *‘iuhV) ‘to drink, to eat’: possible. 

720. *gar[i] ‘valley, hollow in the ground, cave’: weak. 

721. *gorV ‘to cry, to speak, to produce vocal sounds’: weak. 

722. *gUrV ‘skin’: rejected. 

723. *garHV ‘to crush, to grind’: weak. 

724. *gVRVbV (or *-p-) ‘dark’: possible. 

725. *gu[rir]V (or *gurV *gurVrV “• **gurVrV) ‘skill, ruse, deceit; to deceive’: 

726. *gotKV ‘popliteal space (back of the knee), armpit’: rejected. 

727. *gu3e ‘sheep, goat’: weak. 

728. *gU3 V ‘to feel, to smell something’: rejected. 

729. *y[a]cV ‘to bite, to chew’: possible. 


730. *rac[U] (= *raco or *ga?ic[U] ?) ‘grass’: rejected. 

731. *yocV ‘bone’, (?) ‘backbone’: rejected. 

731a. *yay[e]cV ‘to seek, to look for’: rejected. 

732. *yAcV ‘to cut, to cut into pieces’: rejected. 

733. *rudV ‘to tie; thong’: rejected. 

734. *rULV ‘knee, elbow’: weak. 

735. *runV ‘to bend, to be bent, to sink, to fall’: rejected. 

736. *ron[V]ga ‘fingernail, claw’ (— > ‘thorn, hook’): rejected. 

737. *ran[c]U ‘cheek’: rejected. 

738. *rontV ‘heat; to heat’: rejected. 

739. *ruru ‘to flow, to stream’: possible. 

740. *rVRV ‘wild boar’: rejected. 

741. *yer?V ‘eagle’ or similar: possible. 

742. *yERgE ‘big beast, beast of prey’: rejected. 

743. *y[o]rko ‘to bend, to be bent/crooked’: rejected. 

744. *yVR[V]PV ‘cloud’: rejected. 

745. *yVR[V][q]V ‘to gnaw’: weak. 

746. *rVRTVH 2 TV (= *gVRgVH 2 TV ?) ‘waterbird’: rejected. 

747. *y[u]sV ‘to live’: rejected. 

748. *[y]isVbV ‘to grow; vegetation’: weak. 

749. *y[o]wV ‘wild sheep/goats’: possible. 

750. *royV ‘to carry, to bring’: possible. 

75 1 . *ha deictic pronominal particle (‘ille’, distal deixis): strong. 

751a. *[h] a particle of collectedness: possible. 

752. *[h]se ~ *[h]U dual particle (for nomina animata): rejected. 

753. *h[e] ‘this’: strong. 

754. *[h]i ‘iste’ (or ‘hie’): strong. 

755. *[h]u ‘iste’, demonstrative particle (intermediate deixis ?): strong. 

756. *hedV ‘to break’: possible. 

757. *hudi ‘to rot, to dissolve (by boiling), to boil’: possible. 

758. *hu|od[V]?V ‘to be motionless, to sleep’: weak. 

759. *hakV ‘slow, inactive’: possible. 

760. *h|X[a]ka ‘to need, to lack’: possible. 

761. *[h]awk[a] ‘light; bright’: rejected. 

762. *hUwake ‘to move, to walk’: rejected. 

763. *hakYV ‘to stand, to stop, to stay, to be’: weak. 

764. *hoKU ‘to copulate’: possible. 

765. *halV ‘to call out, to call, to pronounce magic words, to rejoice’: possible. 

766. *halV ‘this’: possible. 

767. *hAlV ‘to shine; bright’: possible. 

768. *hiLV (or *hEyLV ??) ‘new heavenly light’: rejected. 

769. *hiL[U] ‘to stand, to be, to exist’: possible. 

770. *huLV ‘to push, to butt, to pierce’: weak. 

770a. *[h]al[V?]E ‘on the other side’: strong. 

770b. *[h]ali[w]V ‘elephant’: possible. 

771. *haLVK[u] ‘to step, to walk’: possible. 


772. *hAlUK[a] ‘to be in need (hungry, thirsty), to covet’: weak. 

773. *[h]VmP[i] ‘venomous vermin/(?) reptile’: rejected. 

774. *hanV ‘head’ — ► ‘top’ —*■ ‘on, on the surface, towards’: possible. 

775. *hEnV ‘iste’: possible. 

776. *hu?En|gV ‘wave’: rejected. 

777. *hAwgV ‘sense, mind, soul’: rejected. 

778. *hUPU ‘bad’, ‘error, sin’: rejected. 

779. *herV ‘to disintegrate, to fall to pieces’: possible. 

780. *hoR[i] ‘to conceive’, ‘newborn, young’: possible. 

781. *he[?|y]r[E] ‘male’: rejected. 

782. *h[o]RVbV ‘to run’: rejected. 

783. *huRcV ‘to wrinkle, to rumple, to crush, to tear down’: rejected. 

784. *hirVgV ‘to kill’ or ‘to die’: rejected. 

785. *haRKa ‘to hold/grasp, to keep, to keep in one’s possession’: rejected. 

786. *[h]as[o] ‘to burn (of fire)’: rejected. 

787. *hisE ‘to break’: possible. 

788. *[h]otV ‘to smell (to get the odor of)’, ‘to smell (to have an odor/scent)’: 

789. *hawtV ‘to call, to speak’: rejected. 

790. *hawV ‘to desire, to love’: strong. 

791. *how[i] ‘to become, to appear’: rejected. 

792. *h[o]wV ‘pit, depression’: rejected. 

793. *hse[?]w[U] ‘to fall, to sink’: rejected. 

794. *ho[w]Va (or *hoVwa) ‘to flow, to stream; a stream’: rejected. 

794a. *hVya ‘for, for the sake of, directive-designative particle: rejected. 

795. *H 2 i particle of past (preterite): possible. 

796. *H 1 icxV *-c- *H 1 icr|hV ‘father, head of family’ (— > or <— ‘master, lord’): 

797. *Hac|c[i] (or *X|Q|hac|c[i] ?) ‘father, ancestor’: possible. 

798. *H 2 ec[U] (or *H 2 eH 2 ic[U] ??) ‘to sink’: rejected. 

799. *H 2 UdV (or *hUdV ?): ‘sister’, ‘female relative’: rejected. 

800. *HuwdV (= *fuwdV ?) ‘evening, night’ : rejected. 

800a. *HogE ‘top, above’: rejected. 

800b. *HAkV ‘leaf, (?) ‘branch’: weak. 

801. *H[o]kE (= *H[o]kii or *H[o]kae ?) ‘goat’: rejected. 

802. *[H 2 ]okU ‘head’: rejected. 

803. *H[i]kae ‘to eat’: weak. 

803a. *[H 2 ]elV ‘sprout, twig’: strong. 

804. *H 3 iL[i] (= *hiL[i] ?) (or *H 3 i[?|y]L[i] ??) ‘intestines’: rejected. 

804a. *H[a]lV (= *%|q[a]lV ?) ‘female’: rejected. 

805. *H 3 am[U] ‘to be or become quiet, to enjoy’: possible. 

805a. *Homg[ii] ‘breast’: possible. 

806. *H[e]mVnV (= *?[e]mVnV ?) ‘oak, tree’: rejected. 

807. *HahV ‘other’: possible. 

808. *HinV (= *XinV ?) ‘other’: rejected. 

809. *Han[g]V(tV) (or *Harj[g]V(tV) ?) ‘duck’: strong. 


810. *Honka (= *Honka ?) ‘angle, joint/bend (of limb, etc.)’: weak. 

811. *HEnomV (= ? *h E nomV or ?? *xEnomV) ‘to take hold of, to have, to seize’ 

812. *H[a]ntV ‘kernel’: rejected. 

813. *Hur)[d]V ‘root’: possible. 

814. *HagkU ‘fire’: rejected. 

815. *HUpV-(tVk|gV) or *HU[P]tVkV ~ *-VgV (*H = *h or *h ?) ‘stalk (of a tree)’ 
(?) ‘haft’: rejected. 

816. *H[ce]RV ‘goat, sheep’: possible. 

817. ’“iqerU ‘to go upwards, to rise’: possible. 

818. *H|WurV ‘male person/animal’: possible. 

819. *H 1 a?VrV (= *?a?VrV ?) ‘long, big’: rejected. 

820. *Ha[wV]sV (= *?awisV ?) ‘male, male person’: weak. 

821. * Hay a ‘to pursue’: possible. 

822. *H 2 oyV (= *hoyV ?) ‘by me, my’: possible. 

823. *hU[w]cV (or *hUwVcV) ‘loins, lap’: rejected. 

824. *haLu (or *haLwV) ‘ a leaf-bearing tree’: possible. 

825. *hVLiLV ‘flower, a plant with flowers’: rejected. 

826. *hEmVdV ‘to desire, to covet’: rejected. 

827. *[h]oNca (or *%oNca) ‘(front) end, extremity, edge, tip’: rejected. 

828. *[h]andV (or *%andV) ‘shade, darkness’: rejected. 

829. *hU[n|m]pV?V ‘navel’: rejected. 

830. *(hinV-)rimPV or *(himV-)rimPV ‘eyelid, eyelash’: rejected. 

831. *hop[V]lE ‘to flow, to drown’: rejected. 

832. *h[ii]rxVcV ‘to scratch, to comb’: rejected. 

833. *h[U]rel|lV ‘reed’: rejected. 

834. *hE[y]sU ‘feces, filth’: rejected. 

835. *hU 3 E(-qV) ‘to look, to see’: weak. 

836. *ko ‘whereas, but, also’ (adversative-thematic and reminding enclitic conjunc 
tion): weak. 

837. *kU particle of plurality: strong. 

838. *kV ‘out of, from’: weak. 

839. *kV ~ *gV ‘thee, thy’: weak. 

840. *ko?[i] ‘to call’: rejected. 

840a. *ke'ii (or *k|KeyV ?) ‘to make, to do’: weak. 

841. *kE?u ‘to pour, to flow’: rejected. 

842. *ku?a ‘to go, to advance, to follow’: rejected. 

843. *kabV ‘sheep, goat’: possible. 

844. *kabV ‘to rise, to stand up’: rejected. 

845. *kabV ‘calabash, gourd’: possible. 

846. *kibV ‘hump, bend; to bend’: rejected. 

847. *kobV ‘to hew, to cut’ (—>■ ‘to plane’): possible. 

847a. *koH 2 [a]bV (“' *koH 2 [a]pV ?) ‘frog, toad’: rejected. 

848. *k[a]cU ‘skin’: rejected. 

849. *kEc[U] ~ *k[ii]c[U] (or *-c-) ‘ kn ife’: weak. 

850. *k[u]cV or *K[u]cV ‘ant’: possible. 


851. *k[a]d|tV ‘rock’: possible. 

852. *kudV (of *KudV) ‘to plait’: possible. 

853. *kiid[a] ‘male person of the opposite exogamous moiety’ (— > ‘male relative in- 
law’): weak. 

854. *koidV ~ *kodW ‘filth, dirt; abominable’: weak. 

855. *k|KedV[s|c]u ‘to sneeze’: rejected. 

856. *k|gog[U] 3 E[?V] ‘to set fire, to burn (something)’: rejected. 

857. *kakE [= *kaki ?] (or *k- ?) ‘angry, bad’: rejected. 

858. *k[Eho]ka ‘green/blue, green plants’: rejected. 

859. *k[a]la (or *kaliya ~ *kalaya ?) ‘vessel, boat’: possible. 

860. *kalV ‘to lie’ (— > ‘to spend the night’): possible. 

861 . *kal|lV ‘to bark (a tree), to remove vegetation’; — > ‘bare, naked’: possible. 

862. *kalu ‘a woman of the opposite exogamous moiety’ (— >■ ‘female relative-in-law’, 
‘bride’): possible. 

863. *k[o]lV ‘bough, stick’: weak. 

864. *k[o]Li (or *k[o]Li?u ?) [= *k[o]l|h (or *k[o]l|li?u ?)?] ‘to smear’: weak. 

865. *kulV (or *kuwselV ?) ‘to work’: weak. 

866. *kUlV (or *kVholV ?) ‘snake, worm’: possible. 

867. *kulV ‘glowing coals; to heat/roast/fry/cook’: possible. 

868. *ka[h]lV ‘power, force; to be able’: possible. 

869. *kal[?]V ‘to approach, to come’: possible. 

870. *kol?a ‘to die; end’: possible. 

871. *kol[V] < i‘V (or *kol[V]'iV ?) ‘to peel, to bark’: rejected. 

872. *kal[h]V ‘to walk, to make one’s way (with an effort), to wade’: possible. 

873. *kalwV ‘together, whole’: possible. 

874. *k[a]lX[o] ‘to call, to shout’: rejected. 

875. *kVl[V]yV ‘lumbar region’: rejected. 

876. *kaLcV ‘voice; to speak, to cry, to weep’: possible. 

877. *kolu ‘to fly; wing’: weak. 

877a. *kulV ‘to flow, to gush, to leak’: possible. 

878. *kulV or *kulE ‘cold; to freeze’: possible. 

879. *kol?V ‘pair, one of a pair’: possible. 

880. *kolHa ‘oak’: possible. 

881. *kama ‘to peel’ (— »■ ‘dandruff, scab’): possible. 

882. *kamV ‘to grasp, to press’: possible. 

883. *kamV ‘full, whole, all’: possible. 

884. *kame (or ’‘‘kame) ‘blood’: possible. 

885. *kEmV (or *kEmho) ‘to give birth’ (— > ‘kin, family’): weak. 

886. *komV ‘something hollow’: possible. 

887. *k[u]mV(LV) ‘(stinging) insect’: weak. 

888. *kuma (or *kuHma) ‘man, person’: possible. 

889. *kVmcV (or *KVmcV) ‘to jump’: rejected. 

890. *kam£V (or *KamcV) ‘(something connected with) hand/arm’: rejected. 

891. *kom[V]dE ‘basket, vessel’: possible. 

892. *kom[V]tV ‘to cover; lid, cover’: possible. 

893. *kanV ‘pair, couple; one of a pair, comrade’: possible. 


894. *kan|nV(-tV) ‘stalk, trunk of a tree’: weak. 

895. *[k]onE ‘to touch’ ([in Kartvelian] — ► ‘to knead, to work up’): possible. 

896. *koni (or *kuni) ‘woman, wife’: possible. 

897. *kuna ‘hair’: possible. 

898. *k[ay]nV (or *kanV ??) (often in compounds) ‘wing, feather’: weak. 

899. *ku[y]nu?A ‘a joint in a limb (knee, elbow); to bend in a joint’: weak. 

900. *kahhse ‘to give birth’: possible. 

901. *kinho ~ *kihno ‘to see, to observe, to examine, to trace, to know’: rejected. 

902. *kan[y]u (or *kanVyu) ‘cheek, side of the face’: weak. 

903. *ken[V]cVdV ‘joint (articulation), shoulder joint’: possible. 

904. *kondE ‘to harm, to spoil’, (<— ?) ‘to touch’: rejected. 

905. *Kun[y]aHlE ~ *K[u]yhaHlE *K[u]naHlE ‘sunshine, daybreak’: rejected. 

906. *kan|mpV ‘a soft excrescence (lip, mushroom)’: rejected. 

907. *kunce (or *kunce [probably = *kunci or *kunci]) ‘(fingerjnail, claw’: rejected. 

908. *kaqga ‘to wrap, to tie’: possible. 

909. *kaggV ‘waterfowl’: possible. 

910. *kog[3]V ‘crotch (of body)’: possible. 

911. *kohpV ‘cave, pit’: weak. 

912. *ko[q]pV ‘mucus, slime’ ([in some B lgs.] — > ‘saliva’), ‘fdth, dirt on the surface 
(mould, soot)’: rejected. 

913. *keypV (“• *kuypV ?) ‘light (not heavy)’: rejected. 

914. *kep[H 2 ]V (= *kep < iV ?) ‘jaw, chin’: possible. 

915. *kopVrV (or *-b- ?) ‘many, big’: possible. 

916. *kuPsa ‘to extringuish, to exhaust’: rejected. 

917. ’•‘karV ‘to twist, to turn around, to return’: strong. 

918. *kaRV ‘to rise, to get up, to jump up, to wake up’: weak. 

919. *kira or *gira ‘to scratch’: possible. 

920. *kore ‘deer, antelope’: possible. 

921. *kurV ~ *karV ‘crane’: possible. 

922. *ku|orV ‘thick, fat’: possible. 

923. *k[o]?RV ^ *k[o]R£[u] (probably *k[o]yRV - 1 *k[o]Ry[u]) ‘to be heavy, to be 
stout/thick’: rejected. 

924. *ko[w]rV ‘embers, hearth’: rejected. 

925. *koyRV ‘male animal’: rejected. 

926. *kur[?]V ‘to shine; flame’ — > ‘to produce heat’: weak. 

927. *kor7V ‘to eat (greedily), to drink, to swallow’: possible. 

928. *kor[V]hV ‘to be angry, embittered’: possible. 

929. *kur[Vh]V ‘hill, mountain’: possible. 

930. *kuRhV ‘to shout, to cry’: rejected. 

931. *kori[h]u ‘throat, neck’: possible. 

932. *korVwa ‘to fade, to rot, to decay’, ‘to coagulate (blood, etc.)’, ‘to get sour/rancid 
/bitter’ (of food): rejected. 

932a. *kor[Vw]V ‘a gallinacean’: possible. 

933. *ka[ry]V ‘to dig’: strong. 

934. *ka|asR[c]V ‘to tie together, to plait’: weak. 

935. *kURcV ‘scales, bark; to remove scales, to peel’: possible. 


936. *kiRu[H]gae ‘to gnaw’: rejected. 

937. *k[a]Rka or *k[a]RKa ‘to turn, to plait, to wrap’: rejected. 

938. *karEmV ‘wall, walled/fenced enclosure’: possible. 

938a. *kiRVPV ‘fish’: possible. 

939. *kaRtV ‘to cut (off), to notch’: possible. 

940. *keRtV ‘to tie, (?) to plait’: possible. 

941. *kVRTV (or *gVRdV ?) ‘to scratch, to scrape’: rejected. 

942. *ku?rVt|dV ‘worm, parasitic insect’: rejected. 

943. *karo (or *k[o]ro ?) ‘onager, wild ass (?)’: weak. 

944. *k[a]rV (= *k[a]rU ?) ‘hawk, bird of prey’: weak. 

945. *kofu ‘stick, log’: rejected. 

946. *korV ‘fig tree’: possible. 

947. *kUrV (or *kurV ?) or *kuryV ‘young of an animal, child’: rejected. 

948. *kuhrV (or *kuhrV ?) ‘rain clouds, rainy weather, rainy season’: possible. 

949. *kirHa ‘old’: possible. 

950. *ko[f][w]V ‘external ear’: possible. 

951. *[k]ii|uSV ‘mouse’: possible. 

952. *k|geHsV ‘warm, hot; hot season’: rejected. 

953. *kaswV ‘to grow, to increase; (to become) big’: rejected. 

954. *k[u]s?V ‘gravel, (coarse) sand’: rejected. 

955. *ka?sV ‘vexation, anger, quarrel’: rejected. 

956. *kis[?]V ‘to tear (off), to pinch, to pluck’: rejected. 

957. *katV ‘to speak, to think’: rejected. 

958. *k[i]t[U] ~ *k[i]t[U] ‘to tickle’, ? ‘to itch’: rejected. 

959. *k[a]?itV (or *ka 2 ?itV ?) ‘to suck, (?) to eat liquid food’: rejected. 

960. *koytV ‘filthy liquid, filth’: rejected. 

961. *ku[t]HE (or *kii[t]HV) ‘to rise; (?) high place’: weak. 

962. *k[o]te ‘belly’: possible. 

963. *kotu ‘to drip, to exude liquid’ — > ‘sap, pitch’: possible. 

964. *kotV ~ kutV ‘magic utterance and its results’: rejected. 

965. *k[ii]ta (or *k- ?) ‘fingernail, claw, nail’: rejected. 

966. *kaVt.V ‘hard, dry’: rejected. 

967. *kawV ‘to call (exclaim), to shout’: possible. 

968. *kiw[V]h[e] ‘stone’: possible. 

969. *koyV ~ *kayV ‘to draw’, ‘scoop, spoon’: possible. 

970. *ka[?]yU ‘(small) bird’: possible. 

971. *ko['i]y[u] (most probably !l! ko[ < i]y[u]) ‘larva, wonn’ (— > ‘moth’): possible. 

972. *koy < i[o] (or *kuy S’ [o]) ‘fat, healthy’: rejected. 

973. *koyHV ‘skin, bark’: possible. 

974. *koyhV ‘to be strong, to overpower, to take possession of: rejected. 

975. *kaywV ‘to chew’: rejected. 

976. *koyw[a] ‘birch tree’: rejected. 

977. *kcz?c ‘skin; to skin’: rejected. 

977a. *kuzmV (or *kuzVmV) ‘smoke, ashes’: possible. 

978. *ka3V ‘(young) dog’: weak. 

979. *Ka a particle of request: rejected. 


980. *Ka substantivizing, singulative, or distinctive (singling out) pronoun, name of 
quality bearers: rejected. 

981. *Ko ‘who?’: strong. 

982. *K[ii] demonstrative pronoun (animate ?): strong. 

983. *KV (= *kV ?) ‘towards’, directive particle: strong. 

983a. *k[A?i]bV or *k[i?A]bV ‘cold, ice’: rejected. 

984. *ko?bE ‘to fill; whole’: rejected. 

985. *[k]u[?]bE ‘thorn’: weak. 

986. *Kab[E?]V ‘wickerwork, bag, vessel’: rejected. 

987. *kab?a ‘to bite’ (— > ‘to eat’): strong. 

988. *KaebLV (or *-Lb- ?) ‘to support, to lean’: rejected. 

989. *k[a]cU or *k[a]cVwV ‘wild goat’, ‘antelope’: rejected. 

990. *kecV ‘to cut’: rejected. 

990a. *kecV ‘clay, earth’: weak. 

991. *kicV (or *KicV ?) ‘thigh, muscle’: possible. 

992. *kocV (or *qocV) ‘to shorten by cutting’: possible. 

993. *ko?acV ‘basket, wickerwork’ ([in descendant languages] — ► earthen vessel’): 

994. *ka[H 2 ]c|cV ‘young man’ (— > ‘[grown-up] man’): possible. 

995. *KawcV ‘share’ (— > ‘lot, fate’): rejected. 

996. *KayCa ‘hair’: weak. 

996a. *KacV ‘to be cold, to freeze’: possible. 

997. *Kec[a] ‘tip, end (extremity)’: possible. 

998. *kUcV ‘to cut/chop into small pieces’: strong. 

999. *k[o]cV (or *k[o]cV ?) ‘bone’: possible. 

1000. *Ka?cV ‘to advance with effort’: rejected. 

1001. *Ka[‘i]c | tV ‘ram, sheep’: weak. 

1002. *KayecV ‘heat, summer heat’: rejected. 

1003. *ka[c]U ‘to scratch, to scrape off scales’: possible. 

1004. *Kac?V (= *kac?V ?) ‘young dog/wolf: rejected. 

1005. *kAcV (= *kacV ?) ‘to burst, to crack; to split’: rejected. 

1006. *kadV ‘wickerwork, wattle’: possible. 

1007. *k[a]d[i] ‘to take, to hold’: rejected. 

1008. *[k]odV ‘to destroy, to break, to cut’: possible. 

1009. *kudV ‘to die’: rejected. 

1010. *KA[?]udV or *KutV ‘neck, (?) nap, shoulder’: rejected. 

1011. *koV[a]dV ‘to be deprived of; to deprive of: rejected. 

1012. *KaHdV ‘grief, sorrow, anxiety’ [— ► (in some Indo-European languages) ‘care’]: 

1013. *[K]oHadV ‘to dip, to plunge, to descend’: rejected. 

1014. *kA[ti]de ‘to cover’: rejected. 

1014a. *kawudV (r...) (or *kawudV) (r...) ‘tail’: rejected. 

1015. *KoXadV ‘to scold’, (??) ‘to shout at’: rejected. 

1016. *ku|od[a]hV (~ *kad[a]hV ?) ‘to pierce’: weak. 

1016a. *KAdXV ‘to strike fire, to kindle’: possible. 

1017. *Kud[V]XV ‘to draw (water), to ladle out’ : weak. 


1018. *K[a]dKudV ‘tip, top’: possible. 

1019. *kakU (or *kokU ?) ‘hook’, ‘tooth, fang’: weak. 

1020. *kUkE ‘dark, black’: rejected. 

1021. *KaKa ‘penis’: possible. 

1022. *KaKu ‘stalk, stick, cudgel’: weak. 

1023. *KoKe ‘to look, to see’: rejected. 

1024. *k[o]kV ‘beak’, ‘to peck (of a bird)’: possible. 

1025. *KalV(-mV) ‘spot, stain; to be spotty’: possible. 

1026. *Kela (= *Kela ?) ‘stalk, a hair’: possible. 

1026a. *[K]_elA ‘to speak, to say’: possible. 

1027. *KelV (or *Ke < ilV) ‘to lack, to be insufficient’: possible. 

1028. *Kol|la ‘to beat, to strike’: possible. 

1029. *Kola (or *Kol[y]a ?) ‘long, far’: possible. 

1030. *KolV ‘(big) fish’ (or *KolV and *kalV ?): weak. 

1031. *kolV (bA) (or *K- ?) ‘dog/wolf, whelp’: possible. 

1032. *Kul[a] ‘clan, village’ (— » ‘everybody’): possible. 

1033. *K[u]lV ‘brown’: rejected. 

1034. *Ku|olV ‘raven, crow’: possible. 

1034a. *KulV ‘to fall, to fall apart’: possible. 

1035. *K[e?|hi]le ‘tongue’: possible. 

1035a. *KoHla *KolHa ‘lake, small body of water’: possible. 

1036. *KeHu[h]liiHe ‘to hear’: possible. 

1037. *KEHUyl[ii] ‘testicles’: possible. 

1038. *Kaw[hE]LV ‘outgrown, inflation, abcess, hernia’: rejected. 

1039. *KoXla ‘to be dry’: rejected. 

1040. *KayLa ‘to shout, to cry’: possible. 

1041. *KE[y|?]ala ‘to burn’ (intr.), ‘to burn (something)’, ‘to heat, to be heated, to 
roast’: weak. 

1042. *KaPia (or *Ka?la ?) ‘to throw, to leave’ ( [in descendant languages] — > ‘to 
remain, to wait’): rejected. 

1043. *kaL < ia ‘to cut, to hew, to chop, to stab’ (— > [in descendant languages] ‘to 
slaughter’): possible. 

1044. *kal < iV ‘rock, hill, stone’: possible. 

1045. *k[ii]lyV (or *k[u]]7V ?) ‘dirt, mud’: rejected. 

1046. *kal[h]i ‘high; to be high’: possible. 

1047. *k[a]l|l[h]u ‘stick, hook, bar’ (— > [in descendant languages] ‘bar for locking’): 

1048. *KEL[H]V ‘cold’: weak. 

1049. *ka[L]VhV ‘to shout, to cry, to weep, to make noise’: possible. 

1050. *Kol|lqa ‘to knock, to strike, to hit’: possible. 

1051. *Kal[w]V ‘thick’: possible. 

1052. *KalyV ‘(lock of) hair, eyebrow, eyelash’: weak. 

1053. *kolyV (= *kolyV ?) ‘round; to turn, to turn around, to roll (something)’: 

1054. *kaLka (~ *kaLka ?) ‘to wind, to twist’: weak. 

1055. *koLPV (or *KoLPV) ‘middle; inside, lap, something within an angle’: rejected. 


1056. *Kal[ii|u] (= *kal[ii|u] ?) ‘skin, film, bark’: possible. 

1057. *Ka[l]V ‘(to be) few, (to be) too small/thin/light’: possible. 

1058. *k[u]l|lV ‘short, (?) low’: rejected. 

1059. *Kohlu ‘to hide, to deceive, to tell a lie’: weak. 

1060. *Kiy[V]li (or *Kiy[V]lV?i ?) ‘to bend, to bow’: weak. 

1061. * Kabul ‘bare, naked’: possible. 

1062. *kol < i[u] ‘track(s), way; to go, to travel’: possible. 

1063. *[k]am[o] ‘to cover’: rejected. 

1064. *KemV ‘to bite’: possible. 

1065. *KomV(-bA) (or *KumV(-bA) ?) ‘forehead, front part’: rejected. 

1066. *KumV ‘sand’: weak. 

1066a. *KUmV ‘black, dark’: strong. 

1067. *kumV(-Ta)/(-RV) ‘fog, mist; cloud’: possible. 

1068. *KU?amV(-nV) ‘a hand with five fingers’: weak. 

1068a. *Kum?V ‘(to be) hot; to smolder’: strong. 

1069. *K[o]mhV (or *K[o]mxV ?) ‘to eat, to swallow’: rejected. 

1070. *kamc[o] ‘to bend; bend, corner’: weak. 

1071. *KU[y]mVcV (or *-c- ?) ‘shin, thigh’: rejected. 

1072. *Kam[U]rV ‘shoulder, shoulder-blade’: rejected. 

1073. *kam[t]V ‘to burn (be on fire)’, ‘to shine’: possible. 

1074. *[k]an[E] ‘young, child’: possible. 

1075. *kan[o] (or *kany[o] ??) ‘to tie’: possible. 

1076. *KanV ‘to sing, to sound’: possible. 

1077. *KanV ‘to begin, to originate, to be new’: possible. 

1078. *Ken|q[u] ‘empty’: possible. 

1078a. *K[o]nV ‘back, rear’: possible. 

1078b. *KunV ‘belly, chest’: possible. 

1079. *kunV(rV) ‘small carnivore (marten, polecat, wild cat, or similar)’: weak. 

1080. *KunV *KunE ‘sun, day’: possible. 

1081. *Ka[g]Ena ‘to be hungry/thirsty, to desire, to long for’: rejected. 

1082. *KuynV ‘bucket, basket’: rejected. 

1083. *Kiiy[a]nV ‘wolf, dog’: weak. 

1084. *Kan?i ‘to hasten, to endeavor’: possible. 

1085. *Kin?u (> as. *Kun?[ii]) ‘to exercise magic, to exercise magic against someone, 
to hate’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘to be jealous, to envy’): weak. 

1086. *Kon[h]V ‘yellow’ (or ‘a yellow substance’ ?): rejected. 

1086a. *K[U]n[H]V or *k[U]n|nV ‘bee’: strong. 

1087. *kanyV ‘skin, film, bark’: possible. 

1088. *Kan[y]u ‘light, thin’: rejected. 

1089. *KunyV ‘ashes, dust’: weak. 

1090. *koncV ‘to scratch (someone’s body or something), to wound, to make suffer’ (— > 
‘to suffer’): rejected. 

1091. *[k]unigU (= *[k]unigU ?) ‘to bend, to incline, to bow’: possible. 

1092. *Kan[K]E ‘to singe, to glow’: possible. 

1093. *K[E]nitV ‘louse, nit’: possible. 


1094. *KAntV ‘genitalia; gland (especially of genitalia: glans penis, clitoris)’ 

1095. *!GintV ‘to be angry, to be in despair’: possible. 

1096. *KEnV or *KENyV ‘nest’: possible. 

1097. *K[ii]nV ‘to burn’ (intr.): rejected. 

1098. *Kon[c]V ‘bark of trees’: possible. 

1099. *Ku[n]cV ‘worm’: rejected. 

1 100. *Kun 3 V *-nc-, *-ns- (or *g|kun 3 V *-nc-, *-ns- ?) ‘star’: rejected. 

1101. *K[iiwa]g < ii ‘blood vessel (with blood), blood, or similar’: rejected. 

1102. *kogcV ‘part of leg’: weak. 

1 103. *kE[g]cV [or *kEmcV ?] (~ *kEncV ?) ‘gravel, pebble(s), coarse sand’: rejected. 

1104. *Kawii]gV ‘shoulder, joint, armpit’: possible. 

1105. *KagKa[hV] ‘shell, conch’: rejected. 

1 106. *[k]apa ‘to cover, to close’: possible. 

1107. *KapV ~ *KapV ‘to seize’: possible. 

1 108. *Kap[a] ‘palm of hand, sole of foot; hoof: weak. 

1109. *kAPV ‘leaf : weak. 

1109a. *k[a]p[U] ‘bird’: rejected. 

1110. *KopV ‘trunk, log’: possible. 

1111. *KupE ‘to boil’ (intr.), ‘to swell, to bubble’: rejected. 

1112. *KupE (or *KiipV) ‘to bend (a joint of the limbs: elbow, etc.)’; ‘elbow’ 

1113. *K[u]pV, *-lV ‘bubble, pustule, blister’: possible. 

1 1 14. *kuPV ‘heap, hill; cone, protuberance’: weak. 

1115. *KuPV ‘box, basket’ : rejected. 

1 1 16. *kaH 2 aePV (= *kahsePV ?) ‘to chop, to dig’: weak. 

1117. *KoH 2 ap[U] (= *Ko?|‘iap[U] ?) ‘bark’, (?) ‘skin’: rejected. 

1118. *k[a]w[o]pE or *k[a]w[o]pVyV ‘skull; occiput’: possible. 

1119. *k[a]yapV (or *q- and *-p-) ‘sharp stone/rock/cliff: possible. 

1120. *KaPVLV ‘occiput, skull’: rejected. 

1121. *K[u]PVrV ‘hump’: possible. 

1122. *KaP[V]Sa ‘box’: possible. 

1 123. *KEPVzV (= *KEPVzV ?) ‘paw, hoof: rejected. 

1 124. *karV ‘to curse, to scold, (?) to be hostile’, (?) ‘to punish’: possible. 

1125. *KaRV ‘to bend; crooked’: rejected. 

1126. *K[a]RV ‘to hang’: rejected. 

1 127. *kaRV ‘to fight; war, troop’: possible. 

1 128. *KarE ‘trunk, (piece) of wood’: possible. 

1 129. *karV ‘rope; to tie’: possible. 

1130. *kasRV (or *kERV) ‘horn’: possible. 

1131. *karV(-ka) (= *karU(-ka) ?) ‘small stone’: possible. 

1 132. *KaeRV ‘pod, fruit of a leguminous plant’: rejected. 

1133. *KEru ‘deer, roe’: possible. 

1 134. *KERV ‘to grow, to be(come) big’: rejected. 

1135. *KERV (= *KERU ?) ‘hair’: rejected. 

1 136. *KirV ‘edge, end, (?) bank’: possible. 


1 137. *Kor[a] (or *KoRa and [KJorii ?) ‘to flay, to bark’, ‘crust’: possible. 

1 138. *koru (or *korii) ‘to bite, to gnaw, to chew, to eat away’: possible. 

1139. *K[o]rV ‘rock, isolated mountain’: possible. 

1 140. *KoR[E] (or *KoR[V]wE ?) ‘worm, maggot’: weak. 

1141. *KurE(-cV) ‘to run, to run away’: possible. 

1142. *kur[U] (= *kur[U] ?) ‘foot, hoof (— > ‘hand’): weak. 

1 143. *KurV (= * Kurd ?) ‘to plait/wattle/tie together’: possible. 

1144. *K[u]rV ‘short’ : possible. 

1145. *KoHri ‘to cover, to protect, to guard’: possible. 

1145a. *Ka[H 2 ]rV ‘sharp’: possible. 

1146. *ku[w]r[E] ‘(severe) cold’: possible. 

1147. *kayerV ‘film, bark’: weak. 

1148. *kuyrV ‘wood, log’: weak. 

1 149. *kaR[V?]V ‘point, peak, rock, steep mountain’: possible. 

1150. *keri?A ‘to cry, to shout, to call’: possible. 

1150a. *KaruW (or *KarugV) ‘female breast, milk’: possible. 

1151. *k[i]ru < iV ‘to strike, to hit’: possible. 

1152. *KirV£V ‘to tear, to break’: possible. 

1153. *kur[V‘i]u ‘to hammer, to pound’ ([in Indo-European] — > ‘to grind’ ): possible. 

1154. *Ku|urW ‘sharp’: possible. 

1155. *KarhA ‘black’: possible. 

1156. *kam 2 [U] (= *karh[u] ?) ‘to bum (something), to heat’: weak. 

1 157. *KirHV (= *q[i]r < iV ?) ‘top, summit, crown (of head)’: possible. 

1158. *kir[U]qa ‘ice, hoarfrost; to freeze’: possible. 

1 159. *kaR[iwu] ‘to come into contact (to meet, to come across, to touch)’: possible. 

1 160. *kiirwV *kurwE ‘hard roe, young of fish’: possible. 

1161. *KarXV ‘bank, edge’: possible. 

1 162. *Kir[X]V ‘to scratch, to scrape’: rejected. 

1163. *Kur[Xu] ‘blood’: strong. 

1164. *kor[uy]V (or *kori) ‘lamb’: possible. 

1165. *Kur[y]V ‘to sprout from a roof (— ► ‘sprout’, ‘root’): possible. 

1166. *[k]arb|p[i] ‘belly, inside’: weak. 

1 167. *K[i]RuCa (= *K[i]Ruca ?) ‘to strike’: weak. 

1168. *k[ii]ru-yVcV ‘thin’: weak. 

1169. *KuRVcV ‘sharp’: rejected. 

1 170. *k[u]RVcV ‘hard; to dry up, to harden’: possible. 

1171. *KVr[V]cV (= *KarUcV ?) ‘to scratch’: weak. 

1172. *KERVcV ‘prickly/rough hair/object, bristle’: rejected. 

1173. *kVRcV ‘to cut’ : strong. 

1174. *kardV ‘breast, chest’ ([in descendant languages] — >■ ‘heart’, ‘internal organs’): 

1175. !|! KiRdV ‘to scrape’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘to scratch’ — > ‘to comb’): 

1176. *K[u]r[d]V ‘monkey’: rejected. 

1177. *k[u]R[ < iV]dV “■ *kuRtV < iV ‘stinging insect’: rejected. 

1178. *kiRgV (or *kiRkV) ‘stinging insect’: rejected. 


1 179. *[k]iR[g]V or *[k]eR[g]V ‘bird of prey’: possible. 

1180. *Korg|kU ‘dirt, dung’: rejected. 

1181. *kVRVk E ‘ skin, bark’ : weak. 

1182. *KaRKub|pV ‘top, summit, crown (of the head)’: rejected. 

1183. *KuRmV ‘wurm, insect’: rejected. 

1184. *KuRm[E] (or *KoRm[E] ?) ‘to cover’: weak. 

1185. *KERVpV ‘to cover’ (— ► ‘roof): possible. 

1186. *koRupV ~ *kaRupV ‘bark of trees’, (?) ‘skin’: rejected. 

1187. *KuRpV ‘to turn (round, towards)’: possible. 

1188. *k[ii]ryVpV ‘sack, wicker basket’ : weak. 

1189. *KVrHVPV ‘piece of leather (used especially as footwear)’: weak. 

1190. *KaR[?]us|sV ‘to congeal’: rejected. 

1191. *k[u]RV su[l]V ‘bottom [bone] of the foot’: rejected. 

1 192. *kurtV ‘belt; to gird’ (— > [in descendant languages] ‘garment’): rejected. 

1193. *kVR[V]tV ‘summit, top’: rejected. 

1 194. *kaeRtV ‘to crumble, chop/cut into small pieces’: possible. 

1195. *K[o]RtV ‘flame’: possible. 

1196. *kERH 2 V3V (= *kERhV3V ?) ‘hornet, wasp’: rejected. 

1197. *koR[V]3[Vx]V ‘oak’: rejected. 

1 198. *kseR3[i] ‘to cut into pieces, to split, to divide’: possible. 

1 199. *KarV ‘(sharp) stick, peg’: weak. 

1200. *k[A]rV ‘to be full, to fill’: rejected. 

1201. *Kor[i?]E ‘a gallinacean’: rejected. 

1202. *Koyar[w]i ‘fat, tallow’: rejected. 

1203. *KUsE ‘grown-up man, old (person)’: rejected. 

1204. *KuSV ‘nut’: possible. 

1205. *KUsV ‘to bend, to bow’: rejected. 

1206. *kusV ‘to breathe heavily’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘to pant, to sigh, to 
moan’): rejected. 

1207. *Ku[y]sV *Kii?isV ‘to look for, to desire’: rejected. 

1208. *Kas[?]V ‘to be hungry, to wish’: rejected. 

1209. *kos[H 2 ]V ‘to kindle’: rejected. 

1210. *kUsdV ‘to chop, to cut’ : rejected. 

1211. *KesU (“■ *K[ii]sV ?) ‘to skin, to tear’: rejected. 

1212. *K.usV or *KucV ‘to compensate’ (— > ‘to pay’): rejected. 

1213. *ku[y]sV ‘tree’ [— > ‘wood’], ‘trunk of a tree’: rejected. 

1214. *kus[‘i]V ‘to fell, to fall’: rejected. 

1215. *katV (or *ka?[V]tV) ‘to mix, to adjoin, to gather’: possible. 

1216. *KatV ‘hand’: weak. 

1217. *KotV ‘tip, end, sharp point; cutting instrument/weapon’: rejected. 

1218. *KotV ‘to finish’: rejected. 

1219. *KotV(-RV) ‘smoke’ (— > ‘soot’): possible. 

1220. *K[aho]t[o] ‘to bite, to chew, to eat’ : rejected. 

1221. *Key[a]tV ‘to fall’: rejected. 

1222. *KutW (or *Kut?V ?) [probably *Kut|tyV] ‘to cut off, to tear (off)’: possible. 

1223. *Ku[y]t[V]PV ‘shoulder’: possible. 


1224. *k[a]tV (or *ka?itV ?) ‘to kill, to wage a war’: possible. 

1225. *Kota (~ *Kota ?) ‘fence, wall’ — ► ‘hut, house, settlement’: possible. 

1226. *Kot[E] (or *ko?UtE) ‘membrum muliebre, anus’ (— ► ‘male genitalia’): possible. 

1227. *kUtV ‘small’: possible. 

1228. *KawV ‘cavity, hole’: possible. 

1229. *K[a?e]wV ‘to hear, to notice’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘ear’): weak. 

1230. *K[oha]w[i] *K[oha]w[i]yV ‘sinew, thread’ ([in descendant languages] — > 
‘bowstring’): rejected. 

1231. *kA.hwV ‘to seize, to grasp, to hold’: possible. 

1232. *kaxii -■ *kaxyU ‘to strike, to push’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘to hew’, ‘to 
touch’): rejected. 

1233. *KayV ‘to look, to look for’: rejected. 

1234. *K[E]yu ‘person of the same clan’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘friend’): weak. 

1235. *KoyV ‘to compensate, to take revenge’: rejected. 

1236. *Kuya ‘manner’ (— > ‘like, as’): possible. 

1237. *kuyE ‘to be hungry, to desire, to want’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘to be in 
heat’): possible. 

1238. *Kse[h]uyV (or *Kae[h]uyV ?) ‘to heat, to singe, to bum (something)’ ([in 
descendant languages] — > ‘to boil, to cook’): rejected. 

1239. *Kay[?]V ‘wilderness, desert, woods (especially in the mountains)’: rejected. 

1240. *KuyhV ‘to rest (from work, etc.), to repose, to be comfortable’: possible. 

1241. *Kay[i]wa ‘to dig’: possible. 

1242. *kuZ|3V(-rV) ‘neck’: weak. 

1243. *kVwzV *kV?uzV (or *kVw3V *kV?u3V) ‘to draw, to ladle, to dig out’: 

1244. *KezE ‘warm, warm weather’: rejected. 

1245. *KozV ‘to skin, to bark (wood)’: rejected. 

1246. *ka3ixV (or *-3-) ‘to scold’: possible. 

1247. *ko3 < iV ‘tree tmnk’: weak. 

1248. *1A particle of verbal constmctions: possible. 

1249. *1A analytical ([in descendant languages] — > synthetic) marker of collectivity: 

1250. *|A locative particle: possible. 

1251. *1V particle with diminutive meaning ([in descendant languages] suffix of 
diminutives): possible. 

1252. *le[?V] (or *le[?V] ?) ‘being, having’, analytical adjectivizer ([in descendant 
languages] —*■ formative of adjectives and quality-bearing nouns): possible. 

1253. *lu?V *l[i?uw]V ‘bovine’: rejected. 

1254. *LV?a ‘to hide, to lie hidden, to lie in wait’: possible. 

1255. *LabV ‘to grasp, to get, to obtain’: possible. 

1256. *LabV (or *LayibV ?) ‘to be soft’: weak. 

1257. *LibV ‘heart’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘life, middle’): rejected. 

1258. *L[o]bV ‘grass’ ([in descendant languages] — > medicinal or poisonous grass ?): 

1259. *LubV ‘to be thirsty, to be hungry’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘to wish, to 
love’): rejected. 


1260. *LibhV (= *libhV ?) ‘wet; to get wet’: weak. 

1261. *L[i]cV(-tV) ‘jaw’: rejected. 

1262. *LawcV ‘weak, soft’: rejected. 

1263. *LicV ‘to pass, to go away’: rejected. 

1264. *lewdA (or *zewdA ?) ‘to look for, to find’: rejected. 

1265. *lEga ‘to lie, to lie down; to lay, to put’: possible. 

1266. *LaXga (= *LahgV ?) ‘to cut, to chop’: possible. 

1267. *Lig[?]se ‘to lick, to sip, to suck’: possible. 

1268. *LagurV ‘body of water’: rejected. 

1269. *LV[T]U ‘fig tree’: rejected. 

1270. *lurV ‘to wash, to rinse’: rejected. 

1271. *L|zagU[yV] ‘fat meat’: rejected. 

1272. *lAkU ‘circle’: possible. 

1273. *LikV ‘to be ill, to suffer disaster’: rejected. 

1274. *Luka ‘to bend’; ‘flexible twig’: rejected. 

1275. *luke ‘to gather’: possible. 

1276. *liike ‘to beat, to strike, to break’: weak. 

1277. *H?VkU ‘to let, to let go’, ‘to move’ (trans.): rejected. 

1278. *Lo[?]ika ‘cutting instrument’: rejected. 

1279. *Lu[?a]ka ‘valley, low-lying lands, plain’: rejected. 

1280. *Luka?V ‘flexible rod, thong’: rejected. 

1281. *juk[V]?A (or *liiKA ?) ‘to push, to shove, to thrust, to fasten to’: rejected. 

1282. *luksV ‘needles of conifer trees’: rejected. 

1282a. *LaKa (= *laKa ?) ‘leg’: possible. 

1283. *jaK[u] ‘body of water (lake, river, etc.)’: possible. 

1284. *lak[U] ‘to lick, to lap’: possible. 

1285. *LuKa ‘to shine’: possible. 

1286. *Luka ‘to swallow’: rejected. 

1287. *luk[se] ‘canine’ (— > ‘lynx’): rejected. 

1288. *LahaKo ‘to grow; sprout, twig’: rejected. 

1289. *LEHKas (= *LE?Kae ?) ‘to make one’s way with effort (to crawl, to climb)’ 

1290. *liiHKa (~ *l|luKaW ?) ‘to jump’: rejected. 

1291. *lowKV£V ‘hole, opening’: rejected. 

1292. *LeqEKa ‘to cut, to tear’: weak. 

1293. *LuK[a]HV ‘to see, to know’: rejected. 

1294. *LVK[V]hV (~ *LVX[V]Ka|ae) ‘to grasp, to catch’: rejected. 

1295. *1uKUzV ‘twig, strap, lash, whip’: rejected. 

1296. *LiLV ‘water, sea’: rejected. 

1297. *L|zil|lV (= *L|zilV ?) ‘reed, water-plant’: rejected. 

1298. *lumV ‘magic, spell, fortune’: possible. 

1299. *la?[V]m[U] ‘crust, scab’: weak. 

1300. *l[E(g)]ume (= *li[g]ume ?) ‘wet/cold weather, dew’: rejected. 

1301. *lahm[U] ‘swamp; body of water’: possible. 

1302. *L[U]m?V ‘lion’: rejected. 

1303. *fam[V]dV ‘low’: possible. 


1304. *LumVgV ‘to eat, to swallow’: rejected. 

1305. *L|zanV ‘side (of body)’: rejected. 

1306. *leyna (or *leyna ?) ‘soft, weak’: strong. 

1306a. *[ENdV ‘to fly’ (— > ‘bird’): possible. 

1307. *Lu|ug[gae?]V ‘beast of prey’: rejected. 

1308. *LAgKV ‘tongue, (?) palate’: rejected. 

1309. *l[o]gKa ‘to bend’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘a bow’): possible. 

1310. *LaPV ‘to stick to; to mold’: rejected. 

1311. *l[re]pA ‘spleen’: possible. 

1312. *LipV ‘fat; to smear with fat’: possible. 

1313. *LiPV ‘to crawl, to clamber’: weak. 

13 14. *La?pV ‘to gulp, to eat (especially liquid food), to eat greedily’: rejected. 

1315. *le[?]apa ‘leaf, foliage’: possible. 

1316. *LahPV ‘flame; to glow’: possible. 

1317. *la[q]pa ‘palm of hand, sole of foot; something flat’: possible. 

1318. *LayPV ‘good, beautiful’: rejected. 

1319. *lup[V]?a ‘bast, bark, film (of a plant)’: weak. 

1320. *L[u]pi?V (~ *Lip[u]?V) (> later *L[u]pyV ?) ‘to slip’: weak. 

1321. *L[a]p[H]V ‘to lick’: rejected. 

1322. *LiP[h]a ‘to stick, to stick to; sticky, glue; to make earthenware’: weak. 

1323. *laPTV ‘flat, low’: possible. 

1324. *LVqU ‘to be moist/liquid, to flow’: weak. 

1325. *LAqu ‘tender, mild’ (— > ‘sweet’): rejected. 

1326. *1 arwV ‘together, many’: rejected. 

1327. *LV[r]kV ‘stem, stick, club’: rejected. 

1328. *LASV ‘to be weak, worn out’: possible. 

1329. * Lis V ‘to gather’: rejected. 

1330. *LiSa ‘small, little, thin’: rejected. 

1330a. *lisV ‘to eat; food’: possible. 

1331. *lusV ‘weak’: possible. 

1332. *LVsV ‘to lick’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘to taste’, ‘tongue’): possible. 

1333. *luhasV or *lahusV ‘lip, mouth’: weak. 

1334. *L[a]tV ‘skin/leather, bark’: possible. 

1335. *[']litV ‘to exercise magic forces against someone, to detest, to suffer from’ 

1336. *Lu[?V]tV ‘mud’: rejected. 

1337. *liw < T|ha ‘dirt, silt’: rejected. 

1338. *L[a]xV ‘to strike, to fight’: possible. 

1339. *Lex|qo ‘to be ill; to ache’: rejected. 

1340. *LawXV ‘board, plank’ (<— ‘bough’ ?): possible. 

1341. *L[o]yxi?a ‘cheek’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘face’): rejected. 

1342. *[a[?]yV *lay[?]V ‘not; to disappear’: rejected. 

1343. *lVyhV ‘to pour; water’: possible. 

1343a. *L[a|se]yw[Ey]V ‘crooked’, ‘to bend, to twist’: possible. 

1344. *Lizu ‘saliva, mucus’, (?) ‘slime’: rejected. 

1345. *LV 3 V (or *LVw 3 V) ‘nut’, ‘nut-tree/bush’: rejected. 


1346. *1V (< *?alV ?) particle in deverbal nominal constructions, nominalizing the 
verbal action ([in descendant languages] — >■ nomina actionis): possible. 

1347. *lihcV (or *1- ?) ‘to press, to squeeze’: rejected. 

1348. *l[ii]k[?]V ‘thick’ (of liquids), ‘dense’: weak. 

1349. *I|layUl|lV (= *IayUlV ?) ‘to sleep; time to sleep’: rejected. 

1350. *[']lam[X]V ‘to be weak/soft; to make soft, to knead’: weak. 

1351. *mA particle of marked accusative: strong. 

1352. *mA a marker of nominalized syntactic constructions (~ subordinate sentences), 
nominalizer (originally a pronoun) that fonned analytic equivalents of nomina 
actionis, nomina agentis, and other derived nouns: strong. 

1353. *ma ^ mah[o] ‘do not’ (prohibitive particle) and ‘not’ (negative): strong. 

1354. *miT: strong. 

1354a. *mi?a‘we’: possible. 

1354b. *mi t[ii] ‘we’ (inclusive): possible. 

1355. *mi ‘what’: strong. 

1356. *ma[?]a(-yV) ‘mother’: strong. 

1357. *mA?V ‘ruminant (deer, antelope ?): rejected. 

1358. *mU?ae (probably *mu?e) ‘to cut, to reap’ (— > ‘to mow’): strong. 

1359. *ma?|ga ‘good’: possible. 

1360. *mUcV ‘to press, to squeeze’: possible. 

1361. *mucV(-kV) ‘to immerse, to wash’: possible. 

1362. *mVcVwV ‘rodent’: rejected. 

1363. *mecXA ‘forest, tree, wood’: weak. 

1364. *muc[‘i]V ‘damage, (physical) defect, illness’: possible. 

1365. *mo[c|s][V]W ‘to cut, to cut into pieces, to tear off: weak. 

1366. *mucV ‘cupped/clenched hand’: possible. 

1367. *mucW ‘end’: possible. 

1368. *m[A]cVgV ‘to be foolish, mad, intoxicated’: possible. 

1369. *mAdu ‘honey’: strong. 

1370. *mAdU ‘lake, pond’: possible. 

1371. * mud V ‘to finish’: possible. 

1372. *mEe[h]udV ‘to speak’: rejected. 

1373. *med[V]XV ‘fig tree’: weak. 

1374. *mage ‘earth, land’: strong. 

1375. *magU ‘bad’: possible. 

1376. *migV ‘to make a present’: strong. 

1377. *mU[7]igV (= *mU < iigV ?) ‘snake’: rejected. 

1378. *mgehga3 ‘young, small’: rejected. 

1379. *miiyga ‘mist, fog, cloud’: rejected. 

1380. *mag[i]za ‘liver’: rejected. 

1381. *magy[E] ‘to swing, to wave, to sway’: rejected. 

1382. *muhi (or *muhyi ?) ‘water, fluid’: possible. 

1383. *makc, *makc-tE ‘top, head, hill’: rejected. 

1384. *mi[k]o ‘to carry, to bring, to give in exchange’: rejected. 

1384a. *mukV ‘top, head, hill(ock)’: possible. 

1384b. *mo[?]kV ‘tree, (piece of) wood’: possible. 


1385. * mo ?kE ‘to press’: rejected. 

1386. *me[h]ke ‘to make, to work’: possible. 

1387. *mEk < ias (or *mE < Tkse) ‘big’: rejected. 

1388. *mak[V]ha ‘nape, back’: rejected. 

1389. *mAks[a] ‘to give, to reward’: possible. 

1390. *muks[a] *mug3[a] (or *ma|oH 2 uks[a] -■ *ma|oH 2 ug3[a] ?) ‘rodent (mouse, 
mole, or similar): rejected. 

1391. *maKU (= *makU ?) ‘baby, son’, (?) ‘to be pregnant’: rejected. 

1392. *moKV ‘blunt’: strong. 

1393. *muKV or ^muKE ‘a bend, corner, hump’: possible. 

1394. *m[a]?[V]KV ‘to cry’: rejected. 

1395. *mV?Ka|ae or *m[a]Ka|ae ‘plain, steppe, field’: rejected. 

1396. *maeHaKV ‘to bend, to turn’: possible. 

1397. *mU[Ha]Ka ‘frog’: rejected. 

1398. *ma[X]Kse ‘thin/lean and long’: rejected. 

1398a. (1) *muK[V]HV ‘mouth’: possible. 

(2) *muK[V]?V ‘to eat/drink (greedily, in large mouthfuls)’: possible. 

1399. *muKc[Vh]V ‘to arrive’: rejected. 

1399a. *m[a]KVRV ‘big, long’: rejected. 

1400. *mAlV ‘another, second’ or ‘two’: strong. 

1401. *malV ‘to incline, to bend’: possible. 

1402. *m 2 eLV (= ^mselV ?) ‘to hide’: possible. 

1403. *m[ce]LV ‘eyek rejected. 

1404. *molV (or *molhV ??) ‘to pound, to gnaw/smash into pieces’: strong. 

1405. *m[a]HlV (or *m[a]ylV) ‘little, young’: rejected. 

1406. *mUhLV (~ *-Lh-) ‘slow, quiet’: rejected. 

1406a. *meH[a]l V ‘a person (of ego’s generation ?) from the other exogamous moiety’: 

1407. *mih E i ^ *miLhi ‘to be weak’: rejected. 

1408. *mU[w]lVyV ‘animals, meat’: rejected. 

1409. *me[y]lV ‘mind; to be clever’: weak. 

1410. *mal?V ‘full, much’: strong. 

1411. *mAI [?l V ‘hill, mountain, something protruding’: possible. 

1411a. *maeLVy|xV ‘lizard, small reptile, or similar’: weak. 

1412. *mel[Hi]V ‘soft’: strong. 

1413. *m[a]LdV ‘young, tender’: possible. 

1414. *malge (or *malke ?) ‘breast, udder’: possible. 

1415. *mUlVka (= *muLVka ?) ‘to think, to deliberate, to come to a decision’: weak. 

1416. *mVLKa ‘to erase, to undo, not to do’: rejected. 

1416a. *mVlAr)kV ‘eel’, (?) ‘worm, snake’: rejected. 

1416b. *mVlV ‘small predator’: rejected. 

1417. *mAlHo ‘head’, (?) ‘skull’: possible. 

1418. *mAnV ‘herd/flock, gregarious animal(s)’: possible. 

1419. *mahV ‘house, dwelling’: strong. 

1420. * mafia ‘to remain, to stay’: strong. 

1421. *manU ‘man, male’: strong. 


1422. *m[se]nV ‘front’: possible. 

1423. *mene ‘to go, to walk’: rejected. 

1424. *menV ‘to tear, to tear into pieces, to divide’: rejected. 

1425. *mENV (= *mEnV ?) ‘from’: rejected. 

1426. *mEnV ‘to tell a lie, to deceive’: possible. 

1427. *monV ‘many, much’: possible. 

1428. *monV ‘to test, to think’: possible. 

1429. *munV(-t|dV) ‘egg’ (— > ‘testicle’): possible. 

1430. *munV ‘defect, damage, deformity’: possible. 

1431. *mu|onV (or *mu|on[V]TV ?) ‘mountain, hill’: possible. 

1432. *mVni ‘fish’: possible. 

1433. *mAynV ‘to ask, to desire’: rejected. 

1434. *me[y]nu ‘oneself, one’s own’, ‘body’ (— > ‘alone, one’): weak. 

1435. *m[a]n[?]V ‘to rumple, to bend’ (trans.): possible. 

1436. *man?a ‘to cease, to delay’ (trans.), ‘to finish’: rejected. 

1437. *maenW (= *msegyV ?) ‘to hold, to carry’: rejected. 

1438. *many[u] ‘paw, foot/leg of animals’: possible. 

1439. *man[Vy]V ‘to speak, to call, to invoke magic forces’: possible. 

1440. *mAnVyV or *mAnV ‘genitalia; to copulate’: strong. 

1441. *min[i]ya (or *mina) ‘woman, female relative’: possible. 

1442. *mandV ‘excitement, wish, desire’: strong. 

1443. *manVga (or *mai]ga ?) ‘strong, numerous’: strong. 

1444. *mint[u] ‘to jump, (?) to run away’: rejected. 

1445. *m[o]ntV *mVtnV ‘to last, to be slow’: rejected. 

1446. *mAntV ‘jaw, skull, chin’: rejected. 

1447. *men[t][a] (or *mer)[t][a]) ‘to miss one’s aim’ ([in descendant languages] - 
be mistaken, to forget’): weak. 

1448. *m[o]wE[n]V ‘intestines, belly’: rejected. 

1449. *mE?awunV (or *mUnV ?) ‘breast, chest, heart’ (— > ‘middle’): rejected. 

1450. *moyAgV ‘neck, nape’: rejected. 

1451. *mAg[g]V *mAN[i][g]V ‘monkey’: possible. 

1452. *mVgKV ‘beaver, mole’: rejected. 

1453. *mur)Ka|u (= *mugka|u ?) ‘to make great efforts, (?) to be heavy’: rejected. 

1454. !|! mui]i[H]orKV (or *mugi VarK[u] ?) ‘gristle, horn, muscle, sinew’: rejected. 

1455. *miqU[?V] ‘to push, to fell’: rejected. 

1456. *maqa (or *maKa ?) ‘humid, wet’: rejected. 

1457. *mseqURV ‘frog, toad’: rejected. 

1458. *maRV ‘sand, dust, earth’: rejected. 

1459. *mAr[u] ‘trace, path; to follow, to trace’: possible. 

1460. *merV ‘to flash, to sparkle, to shine’: possible. 

1461. *moRE (= *moRi ?) ‘body of water’: strong. 

1462. *murV ‘to twist, to roll, to turn round’: possible. 

1463. *murV ‘to break, to crush, to cut’: possible. 

1464. *muRV (= *murV ?) ‘to go away, to perish, to die’: possible. 

1465. *mVRu‘ant’: possible. 

1466. *mVRV ‘hollow hand; to grasp’: possible. 



1467. *murra ‘to emit vocal sounds (to shout, to sing)’: possible. 

1468. *muhrV ‘part, piece’: possible. 

1469. *mari?V ‘young man, young male’: possible. 

1469a. *maRi?V (or *mari?V) ‘animal fat’: possible. 

1470. *mceR[h]V (= *'mser[h]V ?) ‘to be wounded, ill’: possible. 

1471. *mariqV ‘spot, stain, (?) dirt’: possible. 

1472. *m[a]rwe ‘tree’: possible. 

1473. *maR[y]V ‘(mul-, black-)berries’: possible. 

1473a. *mAr[y]V ‘homed animal’: possible. 

1474. *mVR[V]CV ‘to crumble, to crush’: possible. 

1475. *m[a]R[V]cV ‘to be ill, wounded’: possible. 

1476. !|! mur[?]VgE (probably *mur[?]Vgas) ‘animal fat, brain, (?) marrow’: rejected. 
1476a. *maR[k]V ‘to think, to believe, to be clever’: possible. 

1477. *mar?[o]kE ‘side (of body), side, edge’: possible. 

1478. *m[u]rkV(-r)KV) ‘root, root-crops, edible roots’, (— » ?) ‘sinew’: rejected. 

1479. *mVR[V]Ka ‘moist, liquid; to moisten’: rejected. 

1480. *marV ‘rain’ [<— or — ► ‘to drop’ ?], ‘cloud’: possible. 

1481. *mA[f]V ‘to pluck out hair, to make bald/bare’: possible. 

1482. *merV ‘hoe’: possible. 

1483. *m[u]fV ‘to make loud noise’: possible. 

1484. *muq[E]ri ‘shoulder’: rejected. 

1485. *mefuqV ‘to smear’: possible. 

1486. *marVCV ‘contents of animals’ stomach/intestines’: rejected. 

1487. *musV ‘to cover, to clothe, to conceal’: weak. 

1488. *musV (= *musV ?) ‘insect, fly, ant’: rejected. 

1489. *ma?isV ‘to mb, to polish’: rejected. 

1489a. *mA[HV]SV ‘snake’: rejected. 

1490. *mVs|s|Cka[h]V ‘marrow, brain’: rejected. 

1491. *me?isV ‘hide’, (— >) ‘clothes’: rejected. 

1492. *maetV ‘to feel, to realize’: possible. 

1493. *mUtV (or *mUtV) ‘man, person’ (— > [in Altaic] ‘people, tribe’): rejected. 

1494. *mutV ‘to die’ (<— ‘to go away, to be removed’ ???): rejected. 

1495. *mat?V ~ *ma[?]tV ‘to approach’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘to meet, to 
enter’): rejected. 

1496. *matV[?]V ‘moisture’: possible. 

1497. * me tVha ‘head, top, summit’: possible. 

1498. *matVdV ^ * mad VtV ‘to stretch, to measure’: possible. 

1499. *matRV *maRtV ‘midday’: rejected. 

1500. *matV ‘to bend’: weak. 

1501. *mAtV ‘to increase, to make long/broad’: possible. 

1502. !|! motE ‘sprout, stem, penis, genitals’: rejected. 

1503. *motE ‘whole, complete’: possible. 

1503a. *mUtV ‘man, person, a young [one]’: rejected. 

1504. *mutV (or *muKtV ?) ‘drop, tear(s)’: rejected. 

1505. *mV[t]V ‘to pull, to pull out (a plant), to uproot, to reap’: rejected. 

1506. *m[a?i]tV (or *m[o?i]tV ?) ‘larva, worm, (?) small insect’: rejected. 


1507. *mu[‘i]tV ‘woman, female’: rejected. 

1508. *m[ay]tV ‘earth, land, place, place of residence’: rejected. 

1509. *meytV ‘to throw’: weak. 

1510. *mu[wV] ‘this, that’: possible. 

1511. *moyV ‘to give, to give back, to restore’: possible. 

1512. *mu|oyV ‘to touch, to feel (by sense of touch)’: rejected. 

1513. *mVyV ‘to come’ or ‘to go, to pass’: possible. 

1514. *maXyV ‘to lose force, to weaken, to disappear, to be worn out’: possible. 

1515. *meXAzV ‘male’: weak. 

1516. *m[E]xazV ‘berry, fruit’: rejected. 

1517. *miz[w]V-(kV) ‘to mix, to stir’: rejected. 

1518. *mi3£V (or *mi?3V) ‘sheep, goat’: rejected. 

1519. *mu3[V]yV ‘fist, fingers; to squeeze/hit with a fist, to give a blow with a fist on 
the head’: rejected. 

1520. *me3V ‘sun, light; to shine’: weak. 

1521. *may3V ‘tasty beverage, sap of trees’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘honey, 
milk’): rejected. 

1522. *n[a] pronoun of collectivity and plurality: possible. 

1523. *nE dual demonstrative pronoun, ‘they (two)’: possible. 

1524. *ni ‘not’: possible. 

1525. *nu (or *nii ?) postposition and preverb ‘from’, postposition ‘of: possible. 

1526. *nV ‘we’ (exclusive): strong. 

1526a. *nV a marker (pronoun) that formed analytic equivalents of passive participles 
([in descendant languages] — > derived passive verbs): possible. 

1527. *na < iE ‘to go’ (— > ‘to go to do something’): rejected. 

1528. *naX[V]bV (or *na£bV ?) ‘hungry and thirsty; not to drink’ (— > ‘to be sober’): 

1529. *nVXibV ‘thin, meager’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘weak’): rejected. 

1529a. *necV ‘to plait, to tie together’: rejected. 

1530. *N[a]cV ‘falcon’: rejected. 

1531. *nAdV ‘(the whole) clan’: rejected. 

1532. *nidV ‘eye; to look’: possible. 

1533. *ni[?U]da or *ni[?U]da ‘to tie’: rejected. 

1534. *naHgo (or *nagV?o ?) ‘hungry, thirsty’: rejected. 

1535. *nig[E]Xa ‘to butt, to push’: rejected. 

1536. *nigESV (= *nigEsV ?) ‘to butt, to pierce’: rejected. 

1537. *nuH,[se] -■ *huw[se] ‘now’: possible. 

1538. *n[i]hwV (or *q[i]hwV, *n|qohiwV ?) ‘to lead, to direct (oneself) towards’ [— > 
‘to carry somewhere’]: rejected. 

1538a. *nAkV ‘woman’: weak. 

1539. *nEko ‘to open (?), to bare, to uncover’: rejected. 

1540. *nukV (= *nuk[u] ?) (or *nAk[V?]V ??) ‘darkness, night’ : possible. 

1541. *mikV ^ *nukE ‘now’: possible. 

1542. *naKa ‘fell, skin’: possible. 

1543. *naeKse ‘to pursue (the enemy), to wage war, to kill’: rejected. 

1544. *nseK[u] ‘to bring, to carry’: possible. 


1545. *naeKV ‘to plait, to tie’: possible. 

1546. *neKU ‘relative(s) of a younger generation’: rejected. 

1546a. *niku ‘small, little’: rejected. 

1547. *nUKV ‘to strike, to peck, to hit’: rejected. 

1548. *niiKV *nuKE ‘hole’: rejected. 

1549. *naK[V]he ‘to see, to perceive’: rejected. 

1550. *nohlV ‘to walk/lead; way’: rejected. 

1551. *n6imV ‘pleasant, gentle, fine’: weak. 

1552. *'nim?V ‘name, word’: possible. 

1553. *nVNcV[?V] ‘high, big, strong’: rejected. 

1554. *niq[u] ‘hair (of animals)’: rejected. 

1555. *napV ‘to move to and fro, to sway’: rejected. 

1556. *nop[E] ‘to breathe, to blow’: possible. 

1557. *nop[V][h][i] ‘fog, cloud’: rejected. 

1557a. *NVpVRV ‘bank, shore, edge’: rejected. 

1558. *nuqV ‘to bend, to swing, to sink’: rejected. 

1559. *'nVqa ‘to assist (to help, to protect)’: weak. 

1560. *nar[u] ‘thin, narrow’: possible. 

1560a. *no[?]rV ‘moist, mud; (?) to gush’: possible. 

1561. *naherV ‘day, sun, daylight’: possible. 

1562. *heq[V]rV ‘forehead, front of the head, (?) nose’: rejected. 

1563. *niXRV ‘hollow, cave, pit’: weak. 

1564. *nurV ‘to penetrate’: possible. 

1565. *'nVyarV ‘man, male animal’: possible. 

1566. *husV ‘to breathe’: rejected. 

1567. *'nus[y]V ‘woman (general term), woman of the opposite exogamous moiety’: 

1568. *nisu ‘to smell, to breathe heavily’: possible. 

1569. *nat[o] ‘to bend, to bow, to incline’ (intr.): rejected. 

1570. *naH 2 t[o] ‘woman (of ego’s generation) belonging to the opposite exogamous 
moiety’ (— > ‘sister-in-law’): possible. 

1571. *natH 1 V ‘to seek, to seek help’: rejected. 

1572. *na[h]w[E] ‘vessel’: rejected. 

1573. *fkew[y]V ‘new’: rejected. 

1574. *nayE (probably = *nayi) ‘woman’: weak. 

1575. *hiz[ < i]U ‘female’: possible. 

1576. *ne3[i] ‘finger, toe; (?) knuckle of a finger’: rejected. 

1577. *nab[?]V ‘to warm, to heat’: possible. 

1578. *nacxV ‘wet, moist’: rejected. 

1579. *nacV[qV] ‘to moisten, to be moistened; to sprinkle’: rejected. 

1580. *nugV ‘deer, antelope’: weak. 

1581. *nahseg[ii] (or *nah[V]gE ?) ‘to drive, to chase’: rejected. 

1582. *nogulV (or *nogul|lV ?) ‘to tear out/asunder, to pinch’: weak. 

1583. *nagoRV (or *nagoRV) ‘groin, small abdominal organs (kidneys, pancreas, and 
similar)’: rejected. 

1584. *nukV ‘to shake, to swing, to tremble’: possible. 


1584a. *'naKo ‘to laugh, to be amused’: weak. 

1585. *nok[V]XV ‘to be in front, to take the lead, to precede, to be first’: possible. 

1586. *'h[a]Ko ‘soft parts of the animal’s body (liver, marrow, suet)’: rejected. 

1587. *nuKV (+ an additional root/suffix) ‘small fur-bearing animal’: rejected. 

1587a. *noKV or *nar6KV ‘canine’: weak. 

1588. *[n]iiK[u] ‘to lie down, to sink, to bow (down)’: weak. 

1589. *n[ow|Ha]Ki (= *noqaKi ?) ‘to bend, to be crooked’: rejected. 

1590. *nuK < iV (or *nuk < TV ?) ‘to tear, to tear out’: possible. 

1591. *nalV ‘tongue’: rejected. 

1592. *no?le (or *tiaVlc) ‘sinew’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘bow’ — > ‘arrow’), ‘to 
tie together’ ([in Hamito-Semitic] — > ‘to put on footwear’): rejected. 

1593. *nu?lV ‘to pluck, to pull out, to tear out (hair, branches), to pinch’: weak. 

1594. *naglV (or *naglV ?) ‘to fade, to be worn out, to be spoiled’: rejected. 

1595. *nog[a]l[y]V ‘slime, tears (?), moisture, fluid; raw’: rejected. 

1596. *nihla ‘moist, slippery’: rejected. 

1597. *n[eq][a]lV ‘bed of a torrent, valley’: rejected. 

1598. Regional *[n]alyV ‘four’: weak. 

1599. *nulug[K]V (= *nulug[K]V ?) ‘marrow, brain’: weak. 

1600. *nVlV (or *nVlV) ‘insect’: rejected. 

1601. *niqUlV ‘to scrape, to scrape off, to polish’: rejected. 

1602. *nam[o] ‘to squeeze, to seize’: possible. 

1603. *na7mV ‘soft’: possible. 

1604. *na[n]c|cV ‘grass’: rejected. 

1605. *nugV ‘to rest, to slumber, to sleep’: rejected. 

1606. *hayg[i] ‘coniferous tree’: rejected. 

1607. *n[e]r)HV ‘woman’ (and ‘woman from the opposite exogamous moiety’): weak. 

1608. *nor)uda (or *noquda ?) ‘to follow in the traces, to hunt, to pursue’: rejected. 

1609. *naqgu ‘tongue’: weak. 

1610. *nsegs[i] ‘dirt, dirty liquid’: rejected. 

1611. *n[a]pa ‘face, (?) nose’: rejected. 

1612. *napVrV ‘tender, delicate, beautiful’: rejected. 

1613. *niq[u] ‘to grind, to crush, to rub down/off, to rub to powder’: rejected. 

1614. *noqa ‘lowland, depression’: possible. 

1615. *naRU ‘swamp’: possible. 

1616. *niRV ‘to rub, to scratch, to draw/make a sign’: possible. 

1617. *nuRV ‘to become very not, to shine’: rejected. 

1618. *na?Ra (or *na?RA ?) ‘pungent, strong (of sensations, feelings, etc.)’: rejected. 

1619. *nE[r]ArV ‘sprout’: weak. 

1620. *nihr[a] ‘to stream; a stream, liquid’: possible. 

1621. *ne[H]rV ‘plain, ground’: rejected. 

1622. !|! naX[i]rU(-k|ge) ‘cartilage’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘cartilage in the 
vertebra, backbone’: rejected. 

1623. *ham 2 e ‘unripe, tender, weak’: possible. 

1624. *n[a]RKae (= *n[a]Rqse ?) ‘deer’: rejected. 

1625. *na]ifE ‘young, new-born’: possible. 


1626. *niturV[q]V ‘fist, knuckles of fingers; to strike with the fist/knuckles, to hold in 
the hand’: rejected. 

1627. *netV ‘stalk, stem, trunk’: possible. 

1628. *no[‘i]wV (or *noywV ?) ‘to hunt, to pursue’: weak. 

1629. *nawga ‘hair, down’: possible. 

1630. *[n]exa ‘to see’: possible. 

1631. *nE[yU](-gV) ( = *h[ayU](-gV) ?) ‘larvas, worms, nit(s)’: rejected. 

1632. *na3irV ‘sun’, ‘~ sunshine, heat (hot weather)’: possible. 

1633. *g[U] (1) ‘thing’, (2) ‘what?’: possible. 

1634. *qib|pV (or *qasyb|pV) ‘to bend down, to sink’: rejected. 

1635. *'qUc|cV (= *'qUc|cV ?) ‘late, evening, night; to delay’: rejected. 

1636. *qUC V ‘small, few’: rejected. 

1637. *qa[?]igu ‘to bend, to bow (down), to hang (by something), to hang down’: 

1638. *t]iKa (more probable than *niKa) ‘jugular vertebra, neck, nape of the neck’: 

1639. *q[iwo]lV ‘to extend, to stretch, to become long’: rejected. 

1640. *qVlV [h]VmP[i] ‘gnat, mosquito’: rejected. 

1641. * [q] ami V ‘to give’: rejected. 

1642. *qaenE ‘to go (away)’: possible. 

1643. *qanV ‘to take someone with oneself, to lead’: rejected. 

1644. *q[Vw]anV ‘sky, cloud’: rejected. 

1645. *qeh[U]r[i] ‘light, fire’: weak. 

1646. *qaqasa ‘nose’: rejected. 

1647. *q[i]Hat[a] ‘sharp instrument, sharp tooth; to bite/cut’: rejected. 

1647a. *qitu ‘worm(s), maggot(s), nit’: rejected. 

1648. *qaS"w[i] ‘dead, dead person’: possible. 

1649. *quwayV ‘long hair’: rejected. 

1650. *quhy[a] ‘to rest, to lie, to repose’ (— > ‘to sleep’): possible. 

1651. *p [a] ‘ille, another (animate)’: possible. 

1652. *P[i]?V ‘sharp edge, blade’: rejected. 

1653. *pu?i (~ *bu?i ?) ‘tree, bush’: possible. 

1654. ^poTIgyV ‘wooded bank (of waterway)’: possible. 

1655. *[p]o?yu ‘small’, ‘child’, ‘young (of animal)’: possible. 

1656. *pA?icV ‘axe, hammer’: weak. 

1656a. *PaCk|KV (= *paCk|KV ?) ‘hand’ (— > ‘handful, handbreadth’): rejected. 

1657. *Puc[V]yV ‘to press, to squeeze, to crush by squeezing’: possible. 

1658. *P[i]cV ‘stalks of plants (fibers) used for plaiting’: rejected. 

1659. *pocV ‘to plait’ (— > ‘something plaited, cloth’): weak. 

1660. *puc[V]nV ‘worm, snake’: rejected. 

1661. *PucV ‘to fall’: possible. 

1662. *p[e?|y]icu (or *pi?ecu) ‘coniferous tree’: rejected. 

1663. *pacV ‘to open’: possible. 

1664. *Puc[o] ‘hair’: rejected. 

1665. *pa[g]dV ‘leg’ (or ‘part of a leg’), ‘foot’: rejected. 

1665a. *pU[h][V]dV(-RV) ‘long, spacious, far’: possible. 


1666. *PuqdV ‘leather bag, scrotum’: weak. 

1667. *Ped[V]gV ‘to break, to tear, to wound’: rejected. 

1668. *p[i]gV ‘to pour; rain’: rejected. 

1669. *pU[gi]qV (or *p- ?) ‘dirt, feces’: rejected. 

1670. *Pori ‘cavity, valley’ (— > ‘lowland’), ‘to hollow out’: rejected. 

1671. *pa[y]uwA ‘fire’ (— > ‘heat’ — >■ ‘daylight, day’): possible. 

1672. *pa[H(V)?][u] (= *paqV?u ?) ‘to strike, to split, to chop’: rejected. 

1673. *puhV ‘to blow’: strong. 

1674. *pik[u] ‘to press’ (— > ‘to crush’): weak. 

1675. *poka ‘side of the body, side’: rejected. 

1676. *Pa[h]kV ‘spring of water; to spout’: rejected. 

1677. *P[a]HakV (= *P[a]qakV ?) ‘hut, village’: rejected. 

1678. *p[a]k[V]?V (= *pakU?V ?) ‘to split’: possible. 

1679. *pako ‘to heat (on fire)’, ‘to be hot’ (— ► ‘to cook, to bake, to dry’): weak. 

1680. *P[o]KV ‘to scratch, to comb’: weak. 

1681. *poKii ‘(herds of) ruminant animals, wild cattle’: weak. 

1682. *po[k]V ‘bladder, blister’: weak. 

1683. *pEykV ‘to rub, to scrape’: possible. 

1684. *p[E]KyV (or *pVKyV) ‘to track (game), to follow the tracks of: rejected. 

1685. *[p]o[KV]dV (of *p-) ‘to run’: weak. 

1686. *PiKVzV ‘sticky liquid, pitch’: weak. 

1687. *PalV ‘tooth’: possible. 

1688. *pal [A] ‘time, once, one’: possible. 

1689. *pal[o] ‘open ground, plain’: possible. 

1690. *palV ‘internal, intestines, liver’: possible. 

1691. *PilV ‘a hair, tuft of hair, feather’: rejected. 

1691a. *pUlE ‘to be much/big, to increase’: rejected. 

1692. *pulu (or *pulii ?) ‘to spring forth’ (— >• ‘to flow’), ‘to plunge in water’: possible. 
1692a. *pulV ‘to blow’: possible. 

1693. *pVLu (or *pVLii ?) ‘lungs, pluck’: possible. 

1694. *p[i][?]LV ‘strong’: weak. 

1695. *p[U?E]lV (or *p- ?) ‘stinging insect’: weak. 

1696. *P[Ey]LV ‘to fly, to soar’: possible. 

1697. *pi[y]la (or *pil[y]a ?) ‘to fall’: possible. 

1698. *Pel?e ^ *Pe?le ‘side of body, side’: weak. 

1698a. *PuL[V]lV ‘tree (poplar or similar)’: weak. 

1698b. *poli < iE (or *poliyE ?) ‘to split’: weak. 

1699. *[p]ul£|hu (or *[p]ul£|ha) ‘red, yellowish, pale’: possible. 

1700. *palV[g]V ‘settlement, home, wall’: possible. 

1701. *palyV ‘mud, swamp, lake’: weak. 

1702. *pUlHV ‘to be liquid, to be wet’ : rejected. 

1702a. *PulV[Hu] ‘grass’: possible. 

1703. *PalqA ‘half, part’ : possible. 

1704. *pelqe ‘to tremble, to fear’: possible. 

1705. *PiLEqi (= *Pil|lEqi ?) ‘open, uncovered, bare’: weak. 

1706. *p[a]lXV ‘spade; to dig; pit (something dug)’: possible. 


1707. *paI[iX][a] ‘fish’: possible. 

1708. *[p]olx|q|ra ‘broad and flat’: possible. 

1709. *PolXae ‘to fill’: rejected. 

1710. *palyu ‘much, superfluous’: strong. 

1711. *peL[i]yV ‘to split, to separate’: possible. 

1712. *puLyV ‘bubble, blister, round swelling’: possible. 

1713. *[p]ul[uy]V ‘to wash’: rejected. 

1714. *paLuCV (or *paLuCV ?) ‘stinging insect (flea, mosquito, tick)’: rejected. 

1715. *P[u]Ji[c]V (or *P[u]li[c]V ?) ‘gray, gray-haired’: possible. 

1715a. *pA[ly]ak|gV ‘foot’ (and ‘sole of foot’ ?): rejected. 

1716. *palUKu ‘axe, hammer’: weak. 

1717. *Pa[l]VkV ‘to split lengthwise, to divide’: possible. 

1718. *pal[V]tV ‘to split’, ‘axe’: possible. 

1719. *PaLtVqV ‘broad and flat’: weak. 

1720. *PVLhE[ 3 ]V and/or *PVLhE[c|c]V ‘to split, to separate’: possible. 

1721. *Pel|lV (= *pel|lV ?) ‘pigeon’: possible. 

1722. *polV ‘hollow, empty’: rejected. 

1723. *pe[?]lu(-nE) ‘dust, ashes’: possible. 

1724. *p[i?u]lV ‘slit’: rejected. 

1725. *pal|lH[a] ‘to burn’ (intr.), ‘to be heated on fire’: possible. 

1726. *palx|yV ‘thumb, big toe; (?) finger’: possible. 

1727. *pAl[V]gas “■ *pal[V]gae ‘spleen’: possible. 

1728. *pa[l]Hii]a ‘palm of hand’: possible. 

1729. *p[u]yAmV ([b]V) (with the component *bA of animal names) ‘snake’: rejected. 

1730. *penV (or *pen[iy|H 2 ]V) ‘small dog, whelp’: possible. 

1731. *p[i]nV ‘piece of wood, trunk’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘beam, board, pole, 
bar’): possible. 

1732. *P[o]hV ‘path, ford’: possible. 

1733. *Pun[a] or *Piiha ‘red color, (?) fox’: weak. 

1734. *pa[?V]ne ‘to put, to lay’: weak. 

1735. *PU?[V]NV (= *PU?[V]hV ?) ‘meat, (?) blood (as food)’: rejected. 

1736. *Pun[E]ya ‘hair’: possible. 

1737. *Pun[V]ya (i.e., *pun[V]ya ~ *p- ?) ‘to turn, to twist, to tie’ (— > ‘to plait’): 

1738. *[p]un|gyu ‘to breathe; wind, smoke’: possible. 

1739. *Pu|unyE - 1 *Pii|uni ‘smell’: possible. 

1740. *pVhcV ‘nose’: rejected. 

1741. *[p]on[d]V ‘leg, foot’: possible. 

1742. *PVn[V]-sV (~ *- 3 V ?) ‘insect’: rejected. 

1743. *PantVhV ‘belly’: weak. 

1744. *PuN 3 V ‘part of the leg of animals’ (‘knee, foot’ ?): rejected. 

1745. *p[A]nV (= *panV ?) ‘hollowed-out vessel’: weak. 

1746. *pEX|Qna ‘to keep, to protect’: possible. 

1747. *pin[V]ya ‘to turn, to spin, to plait’ : weak. 

1748. *PaynV[qV] ‘to press, to squeeze, to close’: rejected. 

1749. *Pun|ncc ‘body hair, down, feathers’: rejected. 


1750. *[p]agV ‘forehead’ ([in descendant languages] —*■ ‘face, head’): possible. 

1751. *Pigu (or *Piir)E) ‘a game bird of medium size (grouse or similar)’: weak. 

1752. *[p]V?ip[U] (= *[p]o?iq[U] ?) ‘palm of hand, (sole of) foot’: rejected. 

1753. *pAi][i]kV ‘joint, shoulder joint’: rejected. 

1754. *Por)sV ‘dust’: rejected. 

1755. *poqi ‘to cover, to close’: rejected. 

1756. *PuqV (or *PiiqV ?) ‘to let out air/gas’, (?) ‘to emit a smell’: rejected. 

1757. *[p]aqE?V or *[p]aq[V]?E ‘skin, film, bark’: rejected. 

1758. *parV ‘to fly, to jump’: strong. 

1759. *PARV ‘finger’ and *PAR[V]i]|nakV ‘finger, thumb’: possible. 

1760. *PAru ‘stone, rock’: strong. 

1761. *p[e]rV ~ *puHrV (both from *pu?[e]rV ?) ‘fruit’: possible. 

1762. *PeRV ‘ground, earth’: possible. 

1763. *perV (= *per[o] ?) ‘lip, edge’: weak. 

1764. *PerV ‘bottom, buttocks’: possible. 

1765. *piRo-(Kse) ‘to ask’: weak. 

1766. *por[i] (or *poHar[i] ?) ‘child, offspring’: possible. 

1767. *porV ‘leaf: possible. 

1768. *PVRV ‘to cross, to pass through’: possible. 

1769. *[p]a?rE (= *[p]ahrE ?) ‘to look’, ‘to be seen’: possible. 

1770. *PogUrV ‘hollow’, ‘to gap’, ‘to be open’ (a hollow): rejected. 

1771. *pi[h|X|Q]RE ‘around’: weak. 

1772. *PeyRV(cV) ‘belly, stomach, contents of the intestines’: rejected. 

1773. *Par[?]V ‘to bring forth, to give birth’ (of animals), ‘to breed’, ‘young of 
animals’: strong. 

1774. *pAri[?V] ‘to take out, to pull out/off : rejected. 

1775. *pari[?]E (or *paryE ?) ‘to tear, to split’ : strong. 

1776. *par[V]7[i] ‘stinging insect(s)’: weak. 

1777. *pAri['i]V ‘to strew, to spread, to extend’: possible. 

1778. *por[‘i]u ‘to heat with fire, to burn’: strong. 

1779. *por[a] TV ‘summit, top’: possible. 

1780. *piirgU(-cV) ~ *purcVgV ‘flea, gnat, mosquito’: weak. 

1781. *para[h]i|ii (or *para?i|ii) ‘weak’: possible. 

1782. *Per[w]V ‘skin, hide, bark’: possible. 

1783. *p[o]r[w]V ‘female young ruminant’: possible. 

1784. *PoRwV (= *porwV ?) ‘to turn, to revolve’: weak. 

1785. *paR[a]Xi (= *par[a]Xi ?) ‘happy, dear’: weak. 

1786. *pAr[y]V ‘to run, to flee’: weak. 

1787. *[p]ur[y]V (or *[p]ur[y]V ?) ‘wing, feather(s)’: possible. 

1788. *PVRCV ‘to flee, to run (from, after somebody)’: possible. 

1789. *PVRCV[-]hV ‘heel’ or ‘(sole of) a foot’: rejected. 

1790. *PVRVc[%]V ‘fingernail, claw’: weak. 

1791. *PVRicV ‘to break through, to tear’: possible. 

1792. *Parga ‘to split, to crack’: possible. 

1793. *purVKV (or *pirVKV) ‘to be startled, to be scared, to fear’: possible. 

1794. *PVR[V]Kae ‘to tear out/asunder/off, to detach’: weak. 


1795. *paRpVzV ~ *paRpVR|lV ‘butterfly’: rejected. 

1796. *par TV ‘rock, hill’: rejected. 

1797. *PUR[V]tV ‘moisture, water’: rejected. 

1798. *puRtV[%V] ‘to spit, to vomit, to fart’: rejected. 

1799. *PVR[t]V ‘to jerk, to pull (out), to tear off : weak. 

1800. *[p][A]RtV[h]V *[p][A]tRV[h]V ‘rod, young twig, shoot’: rejected. 

1801. *Por?V ‘hair, locks’: weak. 

1802. *pVrdV[y|qV] ‘to quiver, to tremble, to start (from fear, from suddenness)’ 

1803. *pUr[u]gV ~ *pUr[u]kV ‘to jump’: rejected. 

1804. *Per[V]Ku ‘bone, rib’: rejected. 

1805. *perKV[ < ia] (or *PerKV[‘iV] ?) ‘to turn round, to twist’: rejected. 

1806. *Pasii ‘root, stem of a plant’: rejected. 

1807. *PisV ‘to remain, to stick’: rejected. 

1808. *[p]isV ‘to spray, to drip’: possible. 

1809. *posi ‘to be hot/warm’: weak. 

1810. *posV (~ *bosV) ‘to fart (without noise)’: possible. 

1811. *Pus|s[E] or *Piis|s[E] ‘to spit, to sprinkle’: possible. 

1812. *PesV ‘grain, nut’: rejected. 

1813. *pisa ‘to get/make ready (cooked, ripe)’: possible. 

1814. *pisV ‘gall’: weak. 

1815. *PusV ‘to blow’: possible. 

1816. *PusV ‘to rub, to smear’: possible. 

1817. *pVsqV ~ *Peqse ‘spear’, (—*■) ‘arrow’: rejected. 

1818. *Pa[y]se ‘penis’: rejected. 

1819. *p[ay]s[i] (^ *pis[i] ?) ‘to crush, to break to pieces’: rejected. 

1820. *patV ‘ground, plain; bottom’: weak. 

1821. *[p]atV ‘basket, box’: possible. 

1822. *patV ‘to fall’: possible. 

1823. *pEtV ‘to pass, to go out’: weak. 

1824. *PitA ‘to hold, to grasp, to seize’: possible. 

1825. * Put V ‘feather, hair’: rejected. 

1826. *pa[?i]tV (or *pa?etV ?) ‘skin, bark’: rejected. 

1827. *PotKV ‘to split, to cut’: rejected. 

1828. *patV ‘to beat, to strike’: possible. 

1829. *p[a]tV ‘to pinch, to pluck’: possible. 

1830. *petV (or *pEtV ?) ‘to fly; bird’: possible. 

1831. *PVtV ‘fright, bewilderment’: possible. 

1832. *PAEItV ‘old man’: rejected. 

1833. *pV[h]ti?V ‘liquid secretions, sweat’: rejected. 

1834. *pu[w]tE (~ *pu[w]tE ?) ‘hole’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘vulva, anus’) 

1835. *pathV ‘to be open; open’: possible. 

1836. *pir|YyV ‘sharp bone, sharp tool, (?) flintstone’: rejected. 

1837. *PayV ‘fish’: possible. 

1838. *puH|QyV (= *piigyV ?) ‘to boil, to get ready (food), to ripen’: weak. 


1839. *PuXyV ‘to be sick; wound’: weak. 

1840. *pazV ‘to strain, to percolate’: rejected. 

1841. *P[EH|y]azV ‘wild gallifonn bird’: rejected. [Note: there is a typographical 
error in the Proto-Nostratic form reconstructed by Dolgopolsky: *PEH|yjazV — 
the first bracket is missing.] 

1842. *Poz[V]£V ‘to become hard on the surface/top’: rejected. 

1843. *[p]oqE3V ~ *[p]o3VqV ‘thigh, haunch’: rejected. 

1844. *qab?V ‘to scoop, to draw water’: rejected. 

1845. *qUbzV (< *qUp[V]zV ?) ‘food made of ground cereals’, ‘flour’ (— > ‘bread’): 

1846. *qEcV ‘to wear out, to be weakened’: rejected. 

1847. *qicV ‘shadow, shade’: rejected. 

1848. *q[o]cV[?V] ‘to remove’: rejected. 

1849. *qi& ‘to see’: rejected. 

1850. *q[e]c[V] < TV ‘to sink’: rejected. 

1851. *qV[c]V (= *qa[c]i ?) (or *qV[c]*iV ?) ‘to conceive, to give birth’: rejected. 

1852. *qadV ‘to hurry, to run’: rejected. 

1853. *q[A]dV ‘belly’: rejected. 

1854. *qe|idV ( _i *g-) ‘to speak’: rejected. 

1855. *q[A]d[V]?[o] ‘to step, to walk’: rejected. 

1856. *qag[?]a ‘to fear’: possible. 

1857. *q[a]li ‘to extend one’s hand, to seize, to take, to hold’: possible. 

1858. *qalV ‘bottom, down’: possible. 

1859. *qafiV ‘hand’: rejected. 

1860. * qo IV (= *qulV ?) ‘lizard, snake’: rejected. 

1861. *qVL[V]?V ‘knee; to knee’: rejected. 

1862. *qse[liy]V (= *qa[liy]V ?) ‘to melt, to dissolve, to be wet/moist’: rejected. 

1863. *qVLCV ‘to tear, to be torn’: rejected. 

1864. *qVL[V]Kse ‘blister, pimple’: rejected. 

1865. *qalV ‘to strike, to pierce’: weak. 

1866. *qol|l < i‘V ‘fur, mane’ ([in Afroasiatic] —> ‘wool’): rejected. 

1867. *qAmV ‘to cry, to make noise’: rejected. 

1868. *qAmV ‘to grasp, to seize’: weak. 

1869. *qE|amV ‘to dry’: weak. 

1870. *qumV ‘to pray, to ask for’: rejected. 

1871. *qum?V ‘to drink; beverage’: rejected. 

1872. *qam|hbV ‘other, different, else, more (than)’: rejected. 

1873. *qVm[V]LV (= *qAm[V]LV ?) ‘fur, fell’: rejected. 

1874. *qEn|gKV ‘to strangle, to kill’: rejected. 

1875. *qantV ‘forehead, front’: possible. 

1876. *qapV ‘to stream, to flow’: possible. 

1877. *qupV (or *qiipV ?) ‘to cover, to close; a lid, a cover’: rejected. 

1878. *q[a]p[?] ‘bank, shore’: rejected. 

1879. *q[se]p'iV ‘to seize, to hold’: rejected. 

1880. *qapURV “■ *qapU(-RV) ‘to protect, to help’: rejected. 

1881. *qerV ‘(wild) ox’: weak. 


1882. *qUR[E] ‘to bend, to incline’: weak. 

1883. *qurV ‘to strike, to chop’: possible. 

1884. *q[u]rV ‘to pierce, to make a hole; hole, pit’: weak. 

1885. *qe[?]rV or *qer[?]V ‘brook, stream’: rejected. 

1886. *qaRPV ‘to harvest’ ([in Altaic] — > ‘cereal’): possible. 

1887. *qor[V]tV ‘to cut into, to incise, to make a hole’: rejected. 

1888. *qAri?V (or *qA < iVn?V ?) ‘filth, dirt, feces’: weak. 

1889. *q[a]sV ‘to remember, to have in mind’: rejected. 

1890. *qatV ‘corn’: rejected. 

1891. *q[i]tV ‘to appear, to become visible’: rejected. 

1892. *qVtV (or *qVp[V]tV ?) ‘tail, hinder part’ (probably ‘tail of some animal’): 

1893. *q[a]tV ‘tree, stick’: rejected. 

1894. *qaet[i] ‘to turn back’, ‘to return’ (intr.) ([in Indo-European] — > ‘again’): rejected. 

1895. *qastU (= *qastu ?) ‘to cross’, ‘over/through’ (direction)’: rejected. 

1896. *qo[ha]ta ‘to bum’ (trans., intr.), ‘to kindle’, ‘fire, glowing coals’: rejected. 

1897. *qu[hE]tV ‘intestines, sinew, thread; to tie’: rejected. 

1898. *qow[i] (or possibly *qo?aw[i] or *qa?ow[i]) ‘orifice, hole; to make a hole’: 

1899. *qasw[h]V ‘to lack, to be empty/incomplete’: rejected. 

1900. *qaw[V]yV *qawi ‘to protect, to defend, to help’: rejected. 

1901. *[q]uyV (or *[q]aswV ?) ‘to wrap, to drape’ ([in descendant languages] — > 
‘cloth’): weak. 

1902. *qV particle of collectivity ([in descendant languages] — > a marker of plurality): 

1903. *qAbV ‘jaw’: possible. 

1904. *[q]sebV ‘belly, stomach’: rejected. 

1905. *qUb‘i[E] ‘basket’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘vessel’): rejected. 

1906. *qacV ‘gray’ (especially of hair), ‘white’: weak. 

1907. *qud[i] ‘house, hut’: possible. 

1908. *qUyiggU (or *qigqU) ‘cold’: weak. 

1909. *qu < ika| 2 e (or *quk‘ia|as) ‘to squat’: rejected. 

1910. *qaLV ‘neck’: weak. 

1911. *qola ‘to kill’: possible. 

1912. *qUlU ‘boy, child’: rejected. 

1913. *qU[?]lV ‘speak, call’: weak. 

1914. *qawlV (or *qawElV) ‘leg, bone of a limb’: rejected. 

1915. *qAl|lAb|pV (? ‘to cover’ — >) ‘to hide, to conceal’: rejected. 

1916. *q[o]Lup[?]ii ‘to gulp, to swallow’: weak. 

1917. *[q]ulU (or *[q]uLyU) ‘(hollow) stalk, reed, hollow (tubular) bone’: rejected. 

1918. *qUl|lE ‘penis, (?) vulva’: possible. 

1919. *qAl|l < i‘V ‘to break, to tear, to pluck’: possible. 

1920. *qaI[V]W ‘to urinate’: rejected. 

1921. *qal[ii]PV ‘to bark (a tree), to cut off; bark, peel’: rejected. 

1922. *qom[i] (or *gi?om[i] ?) ‘to be hungry/thirsty’ ([in descendant languages] — > 
‘wish’): rejected. 


1923. *qa[h]nV ‘to dig’: possible. 

1924. *q[o]ntV ‘to fall, to descend, to plunge’: rejected. 

1925. *qu[n]cV ‘to crawl, to climb’: rejected. 

1926. *qoqa(-PV) (or *qo?aqa(-PV) ?) ‘nose’: rejected. 

1927. *qupV ‘to divide; apart’: rejected. 

1928. *qarV ‘to smell’: possible. 

1929. *qoRu (or *quRV ?) ‘to copulate’: rejected. 

1930. *qoRV (or *qorV ?) ‘frog, toad’: possible. 

1931. *qUrV (or *qihUrV -• *qUhirV ?) ‘to reach, to enter’, (— >) ‘to happen’: rejected. 

1932. *qow[V]rV ‘blind, one-eyed’: possible. 

1933. *[q]o[w|?V]rV ‘tooth, large/canine tooth, tusk’: rejected. 

1934. *quyVrV ‘to love, to covet’ (— > ‘to prefer’): rejected. 

1935. *qV[yo]RV ‘heap of stones, bank (rampart), stone wall, settlement’: rejected. 

1936. *qoR[‘i]V ‘gourd’: rejected. 

1937. *qAruH 2 V (= *qAruhV ?) ‘to keep (something) out of sight, to hide’: weak. 

1938. *qur[h]V ‘to bark, to howl’ (of canines), ‘to cry, to shout’: possible. 

1939. *qUR[w]V (= *qUr[w]V ?) ‘ear’: possible. 

1940. *qoRbV ‘hearth, stone; to bake (clay, etc.), to roast, to burn’: possible. 

1941. *qseRqUmV ‘weasel, ermine’: rejected. 

1942. *qVRVsV (= *qVRUsV ?) ‘to be(come) silent/dumb’: rejected. 

1943. *qaH 2 rV ‘hard, firm’: weak. 

1944. *qu?[V]se (or *quH,[a]se ?) ‘to vomit, to cough’: weak. 

1945. *qu?itV ‘bright; to shine’: rejected. 

1946. *qewV ‘bark, crust, shell’: weak. 

1947. *quw[i][‘i]V ‘to shout, to cry, to utter sounds ( inter alia of an animal)’: possible. 

1948. *qewyV ‘to stay, to lie, to rest motionless’: rejected. 

1949. *qoyV ‘to heap up, to build, to make’: possible. 

1950. *qaywE(-LV) ‘exclusively one’s own’ (— > ‘alone’, ‘entire’): possible. 

1951. *qE[z]u ‘to shape (an object) by chopping, beating, etc.’: rejected. 

1952. *qu 3 V ‘intestines, pluck’: rejected. 

1953. *rV (< *?V[r]V ?) theme-focalizing (topicalizing) particle: possible. 

1953a. *r[i] a particle of plurality/collectivity: possible. 

1954. *ru?V ‘to go, (?) to run’: possible. 

1955. *rV?i ‘to see’: possible. 

1956. *ra*iV ‘to remain, to stay’: rejected. 

1957. *rabV ‘much, big’: rejected. 

1958. *'ribV ‘to cover’: weak. 

1959. *rV[b]V (or *rVbhV ?) ‘to move, to shake’: rejected. 

1960. *r[a]hbV ‘to tremble ([in descendant languages] [1] ‘to be disquiet, to fear’, 
[2] ‘to rage against someone’ — > ‘to attack’): rejected. 

1961. *ricV ‘small pieces; to crush’: rejected. 

1962. *rVgVcV (= *rEgacV ?) ‘to add’: rejected. 

1963. *recVqa ‘to tie, to plait, to knit’: rejected. 

1964. *racV ‘dirt’: rejected. 

1965. *rUcV ‘to run’: rejected. 

1966. *race ‘to spread, to stretch’: possible. 


1967. *racV ‘to break into pieces; piece, part’: weak. 

1968. *r[e]cV ‘to please, to be pleased; pleasing, acceptable’: rejected. 

1969. *rVc[V]xV (or *rVx[V]cV ?) ‘to wash’: rejected. 

1970. *r[o]dE ‘to seek, to wish’: rejected. 

1971. *raydV ‘foot, track; to walk ([in descendant languages] — > ‘to journey, to ride’): 

1972. *rVg[V]W ‘to quake, to move in agitation’: rejected. 

1973. *rig[h]a (or *rig < ia ?) ‘a scratch, line’: weak. 

1974. *rVg[V]lV (or *lVg[V]lV ?) ‘foot, paw’: rejected. 

1975. *rogU ‘to incline towards’: rejected. 

1976. *rAwg[U] ‘to destroy, to tear’: rejected. 

1977. *rAy[i]?V ‘to follow, to accompany, to drive’: rejected. 

1978. *rVH 2 i (= *rVh|'i|hi ?) ‘thing’: weak. 

1979. *'r[i]kas ‘straight row’, (?) ‘to arrange’: rejected. 

1980. *rVkE (or *rVku?V ?) ‘moist’, ‘to contain/conduct water’: rejected. 

1981. *rVk[V?]V (or *rVwk[V?]V ?) ‘horn’: rejected. 

1982. *rVkV?o ‘to speak, to shout, to say’: possible. 

1983. *r[a]Ka ‘time, term’: possible. 

1984. *r[o]ko ‘shelled animal (e.g., tortoise, crayfish), shell (of an animal)’: weak. 

1985. *rVkV ‘to skip, to hop, to dance’: weak. 

1986. *rse[w]Kae ‘sinew, cord, rope; to tie’: rejected. 

1987. *raKaXV (= *raKahU ?) ‘to arrange, to put in order’: possible. 

1988. *[']romV ‘quiet; to rest’: possible. 

1989. *rumV (or *rumVnV) ‘vein, muscle, strap’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘string, 
rope’): weak. 

1989a. *r[ii]mV ‘ant(s), vermin’: rejected. 

1990. *r[ii]HmV (or *r[u]gmV ?) ‘dark’: possible. 

1991. *rawmV ‘to chew’: rejected. 

1992. *raXumV ‘womb, belly, stomach of ruminating animals’: rejected. 

1993. *rVyamV ‘(big) fish’: rejected. 

1994. *ri[n]cV ‘(tuft of) hair’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘eyebrow/eyelash, beard, 
stalk of grass’): rejected. 

1995. *'repV ‘to tear off, to break’: possible. 

1996. *r[e]p < iV ‘to make one’s way with effort, to climb, to crawl’: rejected. 

1997. *riqa|ae ‘to shake’ (intr.), ‘to be shaky’: weak. 

1998. *riqu[z]V (=*riqii[z]V ?) ‘to tie, to tie (an animal) with a strap; loop’: rejected. 

1999. *rasV ‘to sprinkle’; (— > ?) ‘dew, moisture’: weak. 

2000. *rVhVtV ‘branch, stem, rod’: rejected. 

2001. *rowV (or *rowHV ?) ‘to dig, to scratch, to carve’: possible. 

2002. *rVwV ‘water, stream of water; to drink (one’s fill)’: weak. 

2003. *rV[h]wV ‘to mix, (?) to shake, (??) to turn round’: possible. 

2004. *rVwXV ‘broad’: strong. 

2005. *rV yE (= *rV y[i] ?) a compound pronoun of plurality/collectivity: possible. 

2006. *sE ‘he/she’: strong. 

2006a. *s[ii] (> **si) ‘thou’: strong. 

2007. *sV ‘to, towards’: possible. 


2008. *SV?[y][u] ‘to be full’: rejected. 

2009. *s[i?]bV ‘strap, thong’: rejected. 

2010. *si[?u]bV (or *si[?u]bV ?) ‘clean’: weak. 

2011. *sah[i]bV (or *sahiiba ??) ‘desert; saline earth’: rejected. 

2012. *sab[?]V ‘clay’: rejected. 

2013. *sibVW ‘beast of prey’: rejected. 

2014. *s[o]b[V]tV (or *sVb[V]tV ?) ‘stem, piece of wood’: rejected. 

2015. * [s] A? [c]V ‘stinging insect’: rejected. 

2016. *Sac[u] (or *s[a]c[u]) ‘to scatter, to spread about, to pour’ ([in the prehistory of 
the descendant languages] — > ‘to winnow, to sift’): rejected. 

2017. *s|saedV (or *s|sidV ?) ‘lower part’: rejected. 

2018. *sidV ‘to sprinkle, to pour’: rejected. 

2019. *sa[h]ida ‘to take aim’, ‘to direct (e.g., a weapon) straight to the aim’, (— > ?) ‘to 
hit the goal’: rejected. 

2020. *Sid[y]VrV (~ *SidVr[y]V) ‘to shovel, to sweep’: rejected. 

2021. *sagse (= *sage ?) ‘to obtain, to hold’: possible. 

2022. *seg|kV ‘to eat, to swallow’: rejected. 

2023. *SugV ‘back of the neck, back’: weak. 

2024. *suygVlV ‘to produce sounds by voice or by blowing’: rejected. 

2025. *SigirV ‘(part of a) leg’: rejected. 

2026. *s[Vy]yU ‘surface of water’: rejected. 

2027. *sakV ‘to sit, to dwell’ : rejected. 

2028. *s[a]ka|ae ‘to strew, to spread’: rejected. 

2029. *sahk[a] ‘to search, to find, to know’: rejected. 

2030. *sak[V]?U ‘to plait, to tie, to bind; wicker’: possible. 

2031. *sVl<VRV ‘intoxicating drink’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘alcoholic drink’): 

2032. *s[o]Ko ‘to follow’: rejected. 

2033. *SoKa (= *s|s|soKa) ‘blind’: possible. 

2034. *s|soKV ‘to stick fast, to be stuck/motionless’: rejected. 

2035. *siiK[a] (~ *suka ?) ‘to drink, to suck’: rejected. 

2036. *sVkV ‘honey’ or ‘bee’: possible. 

2037. *sVKV ‘to carve, to chisel’: possible. 

2038. *suhKV ‘to wish, to covet’: rejected. 

2039. *s[a]hkV ‘thick, large’: rejected. 

2040. *siK[ l i]V (or [less probably] *siK[y]V) ‘to sink’: rejected. 

2041. *siKa[yV] ‘to pour’: rejected. 

2042. *SuKiiRV ‘parent-in-law’: rejected. 

2043. *sal[ a] ‘rope, bonds’ (later ‘chains’): rejected. 

2044. *sal[a] ‘willow’: possible. 

2045. *sAl[e] ‘to put, to throw’: weak. 

2046. *salu ‘intact’ (— >• ‘entire’), ‘in good condition, healthy’: possible. 

2047. *SilV ‘hole’: possible. 

2048. *sili *silayV ‘smooth, slippery’: possible. 

2049. *silV ‘to be(come) liquid, to melt, to flow’: rejected. 

2050. *sul[u] ‘lax, loose, slack’: weak. 


2051. *su[l]V (= *su[l]V ?) ‘heel, sole of the foot, bottom’: rejected. 

2052. *sas?[ii]LV “• *sas?w[ii]LV ‘to look for, to search, to ask’: rejected. 

2053. *si[?]LV ‘to roast, to fry, to cook’: weak. 

2054. *SVHaLV ‘salt, spice’: rejected. 

2055. *s[u]wolV (= *suwolV ?) ‘liquid, moisture’: possible. 

2056. *s[oyi]l[U] ‘intestines’: rejected. 

2057. *sul[w]V ‘thread, string’: weak. 

2058. *salbV ‘to cut out, to pull out’: rejected. 

2059. *silkV (= *silka ?) ‘to let out’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘to throw, to fall 
out’): rejected. 

2060. *salVmV ‘to collect on the bottom’ (of liquid), ‘place (depression) where water 
collects’: rejected. 

2061. *sVLxitV ~ *-dV ‘to slip’: rejected. 

2062. *sul|zu(-ke) *sil|zi(-ke) ‘mucus, slime, saliva; to spit’: weak. 

2063. *ssemi ‘fat’: possible. 

2064. *simV (= *simV ?) ‘name (as a sign of identity), the same’: rejected. 

2065. *simV ‘to be wet; moisture, liquid’: rejected. 

2066. *s|seHmV ‘to swallow’: weak. 

2067. *s|s[i]XmV ‘to be dark/dim, to darken’: weak. 

2068. *saymV(-tV) ‘hips, loins’: rejected. 

2069. *s[i]m < iV ‘to hear’: possible. 

2070. *sam[V]gV ‘(lock of) hair, fine hair’: weak. 

2071. *s[o]m[V]gE *s[o]gmE ‘to enter, to penetrate’: rejected. 

2071a. *SomVdV (> *SondV) ‘sand, small stone’, (?) ‘soil’: rejected. 

2072. *SamirV ‘fat, grease’: possible. 

2073. *SEm[V]tV ‘cold’: possible. 

2074. *s|se[y]mVtA ‘to tear, to break’: rejected. 

2075. *s[e]nV ‘long time, year, old’: possible. 

2076. *si|iifu(-kV) (= *si|imu ?) ‘dark, night’: possible. 

2077. *son[i] ‘one, only; to be separated’: possible. 

2078. *SonV (= *sonV ?) ‘to hear’: possible. 

2079. *sunas (or *suyfke) ‘to disappear, to finish’: rejected. 

2080. *s[ii]NV (= *siigV ?) ‘to breathe, to take a rest, to calm’: possible. 

2081. *son[Vq][ii] (= *soni[q][u] ?) ‘sinew, tendon; root’: possible. 

2082. *s[u]ncVXV (= *s[ii]gcVXV ?) ‘worm, snake, (?) lizard’: rejected. 

2083. *saN[c]V ‘knee, articulation’: rejected. 

2084. *SundV ‘to dry up’ (intr.): rejected. 

2085. *S[ii]hdu ‘river, body of water’: rejected. 

2086. *suN[V]RV?V (or *suRNVVV) ‘nasal mucus’, (?) ‘liquid’: rejected. 

2087. *[s]a[n][ 3 ]a ‘(lock of) hair, feather’: rejected. 

2088. *sewVn 3 V ‘bone’: rejected. 

2089. *s|sagV ‘tooth’: rejected. 

2090. *sugV ‘to smell’: possible. 

2091. *sageXse (or *sagAXae) ‘to plait, to twist, to tie’: possible. 

2092. 5|5 Sur)[g][o] ‘to produce loud vocal sounds (to call, to make an incantation, to 
weep’): weak. 


2093. *sigkU ‘to sink, to fall’: possible. 

2094. *sa?e[g]kV *se?a[g]kV ‘to be near, to approach’: rejected. 

2095. *sai]qU ‘shoulder, nape, back of neck’: rejected. 

2096. *SapV ‘to taste, to be tasty’: rejected. 

2097. *saP[u](-sV) ‘thorn, pointed stake’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘needle’): 

2098. *sapV ‘riverbank, river’: rejected. 

2099. *sipV ‘to pour, to drop, to drizzle, to filter/screen’: rejected. 

2100. *sipV ‘(young of a) bird’: rejected. 

2101. *s[u]PV (or *su?aePV ?) ‘to sleep’, (?) ‘to rest’: rejected. 

2102. *S[u]pV ‘to sweep’: rejected. 

2103. *sEP[q]V ‘to cover, to bury’: possible. 

2104. *saq[i]ye ‘matter, pus, gall’: rejected. 

2104a. *saRV ‘top, hill’: possible. 

2105. *sARV(na) ‘to sing, to pronounce ritual/magic formulas, to make incantations’: 

2106. *saR[u] (= *saRo ?) ‘sinew, fiber’: possible. 

2107. *seRV ‘row’: possible. 

2108. *[s][E]rV ‘back, nape of the neck’: rejected. 

2109. *S[i]RV ‘red, yellow’: rejected. 

2110. *surV ‘to rub, to scratch’: possible. 

2111. ^suTre ‘heavy, large’ (— > ‘full, whole’): rejected. 

2112. *sihrV ‘late’ ( [in descendant languages] — > ‘evening, night’): weak. 

2112a. *S[i]hurV ‘person (man ?) of the other exogamous moiety’: rejected. 

2113. *SuH|wERV (= *suwERV ?) ‘sour, seasoned’: weak. 

2114. *[s]EXarV ‘bright; daybreak’: rejected. 

2115. *s|sayiwVRV ‘nit’: rejected. 

2116. *ser[V]XV ‘grove, coppice; tree’: rejected. 

2117. *s[iy]ar[U]yV ‘beam, pole’: weak. 

2118. *siRbV ‘sinew; to sew’: rejected. 

2119. *S[u]rbV *S[ii]rbVRV ‘to swing, to sweep’: weak. 

2120. *sVRiyka ‘cold’: rejected. 

2121. *sUrtV ‘dirt(y)’: weak. 

2122. *Sar[i] ‘to drip’: possible. 

2123. *Suri ‘to squeeze out, to fdter, to strain’: weak. 

2124. *SurV (= *SurE ?) ‘to speak, to declare’: possible. 

2125. *siharu, *-PV ‘dirt, earth’: weak. 

2126. *sirka ~ *si[f]ga ‘pain; to be ill/wounded, to pine, to languish’: possible. 

2127. *s|sus|sV ‘worm, snake’: rejected. 

2128. *sa[w]usV ‘to get dry, to harden’: possible. 

2129. *sitV ‘tooth’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘sickle’ ?): rejected. 

2130. *sitV ‘to tie’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘to spin’): possible. 

2131. *sut[y]V ~ *su[y]tV ‘to drink, to suck (milk); milk’: rejected. 

3132. *sVtVLV ‘to set, to put, to collocate’: possible. 

2133. *sVTimV (= *sVtimV ?) ‘to hear’ (<— |— > ‘ear’), (?) ‘to feel’: rejected. 

2134. *sUtu ‘to beat, to strike’: possible. 


2135. *s|sEwV ‘oneself, self (<— ‘[human] body’ ??): ‘possible’. 

2136. *si[h]wV ‘sun’: rejected. 

2137. *[s]aw[?]V ‘to want, to beg’ ([in descendant languages] — > desiderative, volitive): 

2138. *siw[7]a (or *siwga) ‘to smear’: rejected. 

2139. *Suwh 1 V ‘to push, to cause’ (— ► ‘to ask for’ — > causative): rejected. 

2140. *[s][ii]wha ^ *[s]E?uwhV ‘moisture, water, wet, rain’: weak. 

2141. *sVwh 2 V ‘to drink’: possible. 

2142. *s[ow]yV ‘to sound’: rejected. 

2143. *sizV ‘stream, small body of water (lake and similar)’: rejected. 

2144. *sui|gzV ‘finger(s), hollow hand’: rejected. 

2145. *sc3A ‘a relative from the opposite exogamous moiety’ (‘father/son-in-law’, 
‘mother’s brother’, and similar): rejected. 

2146. *Si[ 3 ]V ‘to skin, to scratch’: rejected. 

2147. *subyV ‘spike, spear; to pierce’: weak. 

2148. *sUdV ‘to fasten tightly, to strangle, to be violent to someone’: rejected. 

2149. *su‘iadV (= *sti < i adV ?) ‘good, happy, pleasant’ : rejected. 

2150. *s[ayii]dV ‘to throw, (?) to leave (abandon)’: rejected. 

2151. *s[iihi]?V ‘to fade, to extinguish’: weak. 

2151a. *s[a]q[Vg]aRV ‘soot’ (— > ‘black’): rejected. 

2152. *sahKE ‘to cover, to hide’: weak. 

2153. *soKo[7]e ‘to say’: weak. 

2154. *siLV ‘quiet’: possible. 

2155. *suTl[e] ‘throat, mouth’: rejected. 

2156. *su|ugLV ‘to knock down, to attack, to be hostile’: rejected. 

2157. *sU[h 2 ]LV ‘roe, deer’: rejected. 

2158. *sairV ‘to strike, to break’: weak. 

2159. *selV (or *selV) ‘to take off, to destroy, to pull off: possible. 

2160. *sVh[V]S'V ‘to make, to build’: weak. 

2161. *siinigo (or * siiqo ?) ‘snow’: possible. 

2162. *sUqE ‘to breathe’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘soul’): possible. 

2163. *saqgV ‘to wish, to like, to love’: rejected. 

2164. *saqKa ‘stalks, branches’, (?) ‘straw’: rejected. 

2165. *sUi]Ka (= *sur)Ka ?) ‘to be tight (too narrow), to be heavy, to be difficult’: 

2166. * sip erV ‘mouse’: possible. 

2167. *sarV ‘to spread’: possible. 

2168. *soRwV ‘dry; to get dry’: possible. 

2169. *sa[ri]XV ‘to stream, to flow’: possible. 

2170. *siiRdV ‘fiber (used as thread)’: possible. 

2171. *seR[V]m[ii] ‘sinew, roof : possible. 

2172. *sehrE ‘to be awake, to watch (over), to feel, to notice’: possible. 

2173. *[s]atV ‘podex; to sit, to sit down’: possible. 

2174. *s[i]tV ‘thread (made of hair)’: weak. 

2175. *s[ayu]tV (or *satUyV ?) ‘twig, rod’: rejected. 

2176. *sawV ‘(in the) middle’: rejected. 


2177. *suwA *suwE ‘fit, good’: possible. 

2178. *suw?V ‘weak’: rejected. 

2179. *s[e]whV ‘to give birth, to be born’: possible. 

2180. *suwhV ‘to loosen’ (‘to release’, ‘to let out’, ‘to melt’, etc.): weak. 

2180a. *[s]a?EbV ‘to rot; rotten’: rejected. 

2181. *sVb < iV *sV < ibV (= *sub < iV - 1 *su‘ibV ?) ‘people, tribe’: rejected. 

2182. *sab|pEh[i] ‘log, piece of wood’: rejected. 

2183. *sseb[V]XV ‘tallow, animal fat’ : weak. 

2184. *sadV ‘to tie’: rejected. 

2185. *sasdVwV ‘tip, end’: weak. 

2186. *sagaRV ‘to cut, to pierce’: rejected. 

2187. *sVyV ‘ray’: weak. 

2188. *s[a]ka ‘to cover’ (— > ‘to clothe’): rejected. 

2189. *sokV ‘to be mad/stupid/intoxicated’: possible. 

2189a. *[s]i?|TUkV ‘flesh, meat’: rejected. 

2190. *saka ‘to split, to cleave’: possible. 

2191. *sEKo ‘to look at, to watch, to see’: possible. 

2192. *siK[U] ‘to be/get cold, to cool’: possible. 

2193. *s|su[?a]KV(rV) ‘resin, gum’: weak. 

2194. *si[[u] (or *sil[u] ?) ‘to take, to take away/off/up’: possible. 

2194a. *silV (and *silV ?) ‘fat’: possible. 

2195. *s|sulV (= *silV ?) ‘trunk, log’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘board’, ‘trough’, 
and similar): weak. 

2196. *s[ii]li ‘neck, nape’: rejected. 

2197. *s[aEl][u]L < iV ‘dew’: rejected. 

2198. *sal[V]qU ‘to cleave, to cut asunder’: weak. 

2199. *sal[i]wV (or *sal[i]wVyV ?) ‘wild gallinacean fowl’: possible. 

2200. *sflV(-ma) ‘eye; to look, to examine’: possible. 

2200a. *siila or *ci*iLV ‘tooth, fang’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘sharp stick’): 

2201. *si[l]wV ‘shank, meat of a limb’: rejected. 

2202. *selXa ‘bough, twig, stick’: weak. 

2203. *[s]ana ‘word; to say’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘to think’): possible. 

2204. *sseHnV ‘mushroom, fungus, sponge’: possible. 

2205. *sE[y]ontU ‘finger(s), fist’ : rejected. 

2206. *sun 3 V ‘milk; to suck(le)’: rejected. 

2207. *sog?V ‘to wish’ (— > ‘to love’, ‘to wish evil to someone’, ‘to strive’ [—*■ ‘to 
reach’]): rejected. 

2208. *sa|og?V ‘to run, to jump, to climb’: weak. 

2209. *s[a]g[c]V ‘bark, skin’ (—> ‘vessel’): rejected. 

2210. *[s]agKa ‘bough, inedible (or less valuable) parts of plants (straw, rind of fruit)’: 

2211. *sapV (or *sopV ?) ‘to sew (leather), leather’: rejected. 

2212. *sapE[h]gV ‘log, trunk of tree’: rejected. 

2213. *suqV ‘to breathe in, to smell something’: rejected. 

2214. *sarV ‘to be dry’: rejected. 


2215. *[s]ERV ‘to roast’: possible. 

2216. *siRV ‘skin (of an animal), rawhide’: possible. 

2217. *surV ‘a herd, swarm (of wild animals)’: possible. 

2218. *se7[a]rV ‘to reach, to approach, to enter’: rejected. 

2219. *soWrV *so*iArV ‘grain, (wild) cereal’: possible. 

2220. *sayoy[i]RV ‘hair’: rejected. 

2221. *sihrV ‘gray, bright’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘dark’ ?): rejected. 

2222. *siX[U]RV ‘side, edge’: possible. 

2223. *serwV ‘to insert, to thrust in’: rejected. 

2224. *s[o]rUbV ‘to drink, to gulp, to sup, to suck’: possible. 

2225. *sE[?V]RbV ‘coarse hair, eyebrow’: rejected. 

2226. *saRKe ‘to break, to split, to cut’: possible. 

2227. *sErEK[a] ‘red, yellow’: rejected. 

2228. *sER[V]KV ‘to plait, to wattle’: possible. 

2229. *§VtVwV ‘’cold weather’: possible. 

2230. *sotV ‘to exercise magic’ ([in descendant languages] — ► ‘to curse, to bless’): 

2231. *s|cutV ‘vulva, anus’: possible. 

2232. *sat[ahi] ‘to take away’: weak. 

2233. *sVtVRV ‘rope; to twist (a rope)’: weak. 

2234. *[s][o]wV ‘feather, wing’: rejected. 

2235. *sVwV ‘to swell’: weak. 

2235a. *s[a]?iwE (or *c[a]?iwE ?) ‘body of water’, (??) ‘wet/swampy ground’: rejected. 

2236. *s[o]hyV ‘to wish’: weak. 

2237. *sVy?V ‘thing’: rejected. 

2238. *suz < TA ‘heart’ (<— ‘breast’ ??): rejected. 

2239. *t[a] ‘away (from), from’, ablative (separative) particle: possible. 

2240. *tV a postnominal marker (pronoun ?) of plurality (‘together’): strong. 

2241. *ti?u ‘to shine, to be bright, to be seen’: rejected. 

2242. *to[?]i ‘fig’: rejected. 

2243. *tu?[o] ‘two’: possible. 

2244. *ta [ < T] i ‘to tear’: weak. 

2245. *tUbV (= *tuba ?) (or *tiba ?) ‘grass, straw; to cut grass/plants’: rejected. 

2246. *tsebW (= *tab£V ?) ‘to follow, to run, to chase’: rejected. 

2246a. *teb[V]sV ‘heel; to trample, to kick with the heel’: rejected. 

2247. *ta?aega ‘rock, mountain; top’: rejected. 

2248. *tu?[g]V (or *tu?[g]V ?) ‘to listen, to hear’: rejected. 

2249. *tiyV ‘to flow’ (? [in Indo-European] — >■ ‘to run quickly’): rejected. 

2250. *t[e]yaw[a] ‘fire’: weak. 

2251. *toH[u] ~ *ta| 2 eH[ii] (= *to[r][ii] ~ *ta|ae[r][ii] ?) ‘to bring, to fetch, to give’: 
possible (with reservations). 

2252. *tawikas ‘insect, vermine’: rejected. 

2253. *tek < iV ‘to touch’: weak. 

2254. *tAkU[n|h]V (or *tAkU[HV] ?) ‘bug’: possible. 

2255. *tAK 0 e ‘to suit, to be appropriate, to fit’: possible. 


2256. *t[e]Kae ‘to take, to carry’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘to get, to possess’): 

2257. *tik[ii] ‘to show’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘to say’): rejected. 

2258. *toKE|a or *taKE|a ‘to tear’: rejected. 

2259. *tayKV ‘finger’ — > ‘one’: rejected. 

2260. *taLV ‘to shake, to wave’: possible. 

2261. *ta_LV ‘to cut (to split, to trim, to cleave)’: possible. 

2262. *tilV ‘to rough-hew, to chisel, to cut into pieces’: rejected. 

2263. *tulV ‘to tell (a story), to pronounce magic/ritual texts’: rejected. 

2264. *tULV ‘to line up’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘to count’): rejected. 

2265. *t|tVLV ‘to hang’: possible. 

2266. *toH 2 lV (or *tolH 2 V) ‘to fill, to pile up; full’: rejected. 

2267. *tal?[o] ‘(back of the) neck, shoulders’: rejected. 

2268. *tseL?E(-ga) ‘to be long’: possible. 

2268a. *tulW ‘tip, sprout, something protruding, summit’: weak. 

2269. *t[a]lhV *tahElV ‘to hit, to damage, to be damaged’: rejected. 

2270. *tel[h][o] ‘to be/make foolish, to deceive’: rejected. 

2271. *talUH 2 A *talUH 2 a ‘cold season, rain’: rejected. 

2272. *tAlV ‘to tread, to pound’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘to thresh’): strong. 

2273. *tul|lV ‘to be bright/light’: possible. 

2274. *tVlV (= *tA[y|H]ilV or *ti[y|H]alV ?) ‘female’: rejected. 

2275. *ti[?a]lo ‘stone, heap of stones’: rejected. 

2276. *tel[H 2 ]V ‘to bore, to pierce’: possible. 

2277. *temV ‘full, complete’: possible. 

2278. *tVmV (= *tamV ?) ‘hair’: possible. 

2279. *tVmV ‘worm, snake’: rejected. 

2280. *t[a]h[V]mV ‘fire; to kindle; very hot’: rejected. 

2281. *tamHi[u] (or *tamH 1 [u]) ‘earthen wall, house’: weak. 

2282. *tVm[V]sV ‘to gather, to concentrate, to condense’: rejected. 

2283. *t[o]NV ‘to appear’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘to seem’): rejected. 

2283a. *tEggVl|lV ‘heavenly light in the night [star(s), moon]’: possible (but may be a 

2284. *to[p]se ‘head, top’: weak. 

2285. *tu|upV ‘to blow, to breathe’: weak. 

2286. *tup TV ‘tail, back’: rejected. 

2287. *ta[P]kV (or *tawkV ?) ‘to obstruct, to prevent, (?) to overpower’: rejected. 

2288. *teq[se?U] ‘to say, to talk to’: weak. 

2289. *terV ‘to tear, to burst’: possible. 

2290. *tuRV ‘back, back side’: rejected. 

2291. *tiiRV or *tuRE ‘to pierce’: rejected. 

2292. *tuwrV *tuwrE ‘to roll, to turn round, to wind’: rejected. 

2293. *tur?e “• *tur?e ‘full, filled’: possible. 

2294. *tara 2 V ‘to drink’: possible. 

2295. *tirHV ‘to be quiet, to lie’: possible. 

2296. *toRgae (= *torgse ?) ‘weak, loose’: possible. 

2297. *tseRpV (= *taeRPV ?) ‘to tremble, to shake’: possible. 


2297a. *tAru ‘tree, log’: weak. 

2298. *torV ‘bark; to remove bark, to peel’: rejected. 

2299. *tVrV ‘to suffer, to endure’: rejected. 

2300. *tArqV ‘to make an incision, to dig’: rejected. 

2301. *tusV or *tusV ‘against, in the oposite direction’: rejected. 

2302. *[t]uSV ‘bush (shrub)’: rejected. 

2302a. *tae < isV (more probable than AkeYsV) ‘to track game, to follow the tracks of: 

2303. *tVH 2 tV ‘finger’: rejected. 

2304. *tuwV ‘rain; to sprinkle’: weak. 

2305. *tVwV ‘head’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘oneself): rejected. 

2306. *tayhV (or *tagyV ?) ‘to incline, to bend, to bend/move aside’: rejected. 

2307. *ta[q|g]ayu ‘relative-in-law (person of the opposite exogamous moiety)’: 

2308. *taqozi ‘to plait, to wattle’: rejected. 

2309. *tii[y]3|3V (or *tu[w|?]3|3V) ‘part of an arm/leg’: rejected. 

2310. *ta demonstrative pronoun of non-active (animate) objects (without distance 
opposition [proximate +-> intermediate <-> distal]): strong. 

2311. *ti syntactic particle; it is combined with words of verbal meaning to build 
analytical nomina actionis: strong. 

2312. *t[u] (> *ti) ‘thou’: strong. 

2312a. *t[u] ?a~ *s[ii] ?a ‘ye’: rejected. 

2313. *tV a marker of passive participial constructions: strong. 

2314. *tV particle of marked (definite ?) accusative (— ► accusative of pronouns): 

2315. *tEYU ‘to take’: rejected. 

2316. *tabV ‘fit, good’: rejected. 

2317. *tabV ‘head’: rejected. 

2318. *taebV ‘to catch, to seize’: rejected. 

2319. *[t]ebA (~ *tem[b]V ?) ‘ruminant’ (‘antelope, cervid’): rejected. 

2320. *tobV‘teat’: rejected. 

2320a. *tubV ‘thin, small, of short stature’: possible. 

2321. *tubV (or *tubE ?) ‘even, calm, quiet’ : weak. 

2322. *tuH 2 ibV ‘reed, stick’: rejected. 

2323. *taebY[U] ‘to load, to fill’: weak. 

2324. *tubYV ‘lake; natural depression filled with water’: rejected. 

2325. *tUbYV ‘hoof, (finger-/toe-)nail, heel’: rejected. 

2326. *tubYA ‘deep’: weak. 

2327. *tabHa or *tabHE ‘to trample, to crumple, to press’: weak. 

2327a. *tab[V]qa ‘to hit, to strike’ ([in descendant languages] — >• ‘to kill’): possible. 

2328. *tVbV[L]V ‘to dip in, to immerse’: possible. 

2329. *tuH[c]V ~ *duHcV ‘to glide, to slip’: rejected. 

2330. *tawodV ‘to be full’: rejected. 

2331. *togas ‘dust, earth (substance)’: rejected. 

2332. *togV ‘straight’ ([in descendant languages] — ► ‘true’): rejected. 

2333. *tsegwV ‘to swell, to become thick/large/strong’, (?) ‘to become fat’: rejected. 


2334. *teywV ‘to ask (for), to beg’: rejected. 

2335. *taka|as (or *toka ?) ‘to touch’: weak. 

2336. *takV (or *takV ?) ‘to attack’: possible. 

2337. *t[e]kE ‘to build, to shape, to make, to do’, (?) ‘to arrange’: possible. 

2338. *tiko ‘horror, fear’: weak. 

2339. *toku ‘large, thick’: rejected. 

2339a. *tokV ‘(palm of) hand (with fingers)’ ([later] — ► ‘span of hand’): rejected. 

2340. *te[h]aka?e ‘to put, to set’: rejected. 

2341. *tokV?V ~ *to[h]askV ‘to burn; fire’: rejected. 

2342. *tUklE (— >■ *tUlkE) [or *tUlkE] ‘wolf, jackal’: weak. 

2343. *taktV ‘louse’: weak. 

2344. *t[a]Ka 2 ‘to be/keep quiet, to be silent’: possible. 

2345. *tiKa ‘to be straight’: rejected. 

2346. *t[o]ko ‘to run away, to run, to leak’: rejected. 

2347. *tuKa ‘earth (substance), mud, dust’: possible. 

2348. *tuKV ‘offspring, young (of animal)’: weak. 

2349. *t[ii]Ka ‘to thrust, to stab, to push’: possible. 

2349a. *tuKV (or *tukV ?) ‘hair’: rejected. 

2350. *t[o?]aK[w]A ‘goat, sheep’: rejected. 

2351. *tag[V]K[a] ‘to stick/to be stuck to something’: rejected. 

2352. *towKa ‘germ’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘seed’): rejected. 

2353. *teLV ‘to shout, to call’: possible. 

2354. *[t]ilV(-Ko) (“> *t- ?) ‘tongue, organs of speech’: possible (with reservations). 
2354a. *tulV ‘fire; to kindle (a fire)’: possible. 

2355. *[t]axla ~ *[t]alxa or *[t]axlE ~ *[t]alxE ‘spleen’: rejected. 

2356. *ta|?V ~ *ta'ilV ‘shoot, sprout, twig’: weak. 

2357. *tol?A(-kV) or *tAlW(-kV) ‘head, top, upper part, end, tip’: possible. 

2358. *tul[i]?e ‘to come, to enter’: rejected. 

2359. *toLHV ‘crossing (of a river, mountain, range, etc.)’: possible. 

2360. *taLhV ‘flat’: possible. 

2361. *tal[Ey][o] ‘progeny; to give birth to’: possible (with reservations). 

2362. *taRJya ‘skill, fell’: possible. 

2363. *talka ‘to strike, to push’: weak. 

2364. *taLPV (= *taLbV ?) ‘vast; room’: possible. 

2365. *tulE (or *UewulE ?) ‘to extend, to stretch, to be long’: weak. 

2366. *tUlV (= *tulV ?) ‘to drip; drops of water, dew’: possible. 

2367. *tUlEW ‘breast, female breast’: weak. 

2368. *tal[g]V ‘to be quiet/calm’: possible. 

2369. *tul[V][g]V ‘to spread like a veil/net, to cover with a veil/net, to catch (fish, etc.) 
with a net’: weak. 

2370. *tal[h]a ‘to lift up, to carry’: possible. 

2371. *tAl[X]V or *tal[X]V ‘stem’, ‘tree’: possible. 

2372. *t[E]mV ‘to feel by touch’: rejected. 

2373. *tomV ‘to cut (off)’: possible. 

2374. *toyamV ‘to bite, to taste’: rejected. 

2375. *taeqmV (or *UeqUmV ?) ‘sinciput, crown of the head, top, tip’: rejected. 


2376. *tum[V]qV ‘dark’: possible. 

2377. *tVm[V]ka|ae ‘to wet, to drip’: rejected. 

2378. *tumKV - 1 *tug[K]V ‘leather sack’: rejected. 

2379. *t[i]m[Vn]V ‘to be quiet, to be calm’: possible. 

2380. *tanV (= *tanu ??) ‘to draw, to stretch, to extend’: possible. 

2381. *tahV ‘to feel, to know’: weak. 

2382. *ti[n]E ‘strong; to strain’ (= ‘violence directed to oneself): possible. 

2383. *ti[h]unV ‘mud, silt, dirt’: rejected. 

2384. *tanXii *tahXu (or *taqXii ?) ‘thin, short’: possible. 

2385. *tAr)|nV ‘moisture’: possible. 

2385a. *teq[U] ‘large body of water’: weak. 

2385b. *tigV ‘to hear, to listen’: weak. 

2386. *toqE (or *tuqV ?) ‘butt, lower end of the trunk’: possible. 

2387. *toqV ‘to learn, to inform’: weak. 

2388. *tUr)[q]V ‘to swell, to swell up’: weak. 

2389. *teqQV ‘tree, forest’: rejected. 

2390. *taqga|o ‘to draw, to stretch’: possible. 

2391. *taeijKa ‘firm, dense’: rejected. 

2392. *tuqKV ‘to press, to force oneself, to be too narrow, to be tight’: possible. 

2393. *ta[p]E ‘to squeeze, to press’: possible. 

2394. *ta[p]V ‘to hit (the target)’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘to succeed, to find, to 
find an answer, to identify, to recognize’): weak. 

2395. *t[a]pV (or *t[a]P?V, *topV, *toP?V ?) ‘to wade, to cross, to go through’: weak. 

2396. *tapV (= *tapi ?) ‘to put’: weak. 

2397. *tapV(-LV) ‘to feel/touch with one’s fingers, to smear’: weak. 

2398. *tae[p]V ‘to warm, to be warm’: possible. 

2399. *tupV ‘to spit, to drip’: possible (with reservations). 

2400. *tahipe ‘high place, top, hill’: rejected. 

2401. *t[a][p < i]V ‘to plunge, to immerse’: weak. 

2402. *t[a]p[V]yV ‘dirt, mud’: rejected. 

2403. *taPhV ‘flat’: rejected. 

2404. *tVPRV ~ *tVRPV ‘part of the foot’ , ‘foot’ : rejected. 

2405. *teqV ‘to smear, to rub; fat, ointment’: weak. 

2406. *tu[q]i *tu[q]yV ‘to hit, to strike’: rejected. 

2407. *tUqV ‘near; to be close to, to approach’: weak. 

2408. *tVqa ‘to melt, to decay, to get spoiled’: rejected. 

2409. *tAqU ‘to lie (to tell a lie), to deceive’: possible. 

2410. *to[q]a ‘to plait, to bend’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘to build’, ‘to make 
earthenware’, ‘to web’), (?) <— ‘to twist’: weak. 

2411. *to[?u]qa ‘hide, skin’: weak. 

2412. *tarV ‘vermin, noxious insects’: possible. 

2413. *taRV, *taRV-HVgV, *taRV-tV ‘to drag, to puli’: possible. 

2414. *taeRV ‘else, more, other’: rejected. 

2415. *tera ‘to heat, to roast, to fry’: possible. 

2416. *teRV ‘to contain’: weak. 


2417. *tor[ii] *tor[yu] ‘to bring/come into existence (to create, to make, to bear/be 
born)’: rejected. 

2418. *tURE ‘to start, to set in motion, to begin’: possible. 

2418a. *tuRV ‘to hold’: possible. 

2419. *tuRV ‘hard-roe’: possible. 

2420. *tehrV ‘clean, pure’: rejected. 

2421. *tu|o[w]r[u] ‘to grow densely, to sprout forth, to thrive; thicket, thick bush/grass’ 
([in descendant languages] — > ‘to grow’): weak. 

2422. *tox|qUryV or *tU%|qrV ‘dirt; to be dirty’: rejected. 

2423. *tor?V ‘fresh, new, young, young animal, child’: rejected. 

2424. *tar[iH]V ‘open, bald’: possible. 

2425. *tar[V]H[u] ‘delicate, thin’: possible. 

2426. *tor[Vh]a ‘to pass over, through’: rejected. 

2427. *turHa ‘to bore, to drill’: possible. 

2427a. *torXV ‘long, large, far’: weak. 

2428. *tar[V]yi ‘to rub’: possible. 

2429. *tir[y]V ‘to turn, to bend, to twist’ (trans.): weak. 

2430. *tUr[V]yV ‘litter, dirt, dust’: rejected. 

2431. *tiiryV *turyE or *tiirV *turE ‘row, line; to string’: weak. 

2431a. *tVR[V]bV ‘inside of the body, belly’: rejected. 

2432. *tiRga ‘force, strength, effort’: possible. 

2433. *toRga ‘to hold, to prop up’: rejected. 

2434. *terVKV ‘tree, stick’: possible. 

2434a. *tURKV ‘to pierce through; through’: weak. 

2435. *[t]arV[PV] ~ *[t]VPVrV ‘to tie together’: possible. 

2436. *t[e]RPV ‘to devour (?), to be sated’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘to enjoy’): 

2436a. *t[o]R[P]V ‘to need, to suffer, to be moved (with sadness, joy)’: rejected. 

2437. *tuRqV ‘firm, dense, strong’: possible. 

2438. *t[u]R 3 | 3 V ‘dry, arid, hard’: possible. 

2439. *tArV ‘entrails, liver’: weak. 

2440. *t[U]rV ‘heavenly light in the night (moon, star)’: possible. 

2441. *tu|uri ‘to turn round, to surround, to enclose’: weak. 

2442. *tu < TVfV ‘(part of) leg’ (‘calf of leg’, ‘thigh’, ‘knee’ ?): rejected. 

2443. *tarXV ‘to throw, to disperse, to scatter’: possible. 

2444. *tErgE ‘to run’ ([in descendant languages] —> ‘running place’ — »■ ‘road’): weak. 

2445. *tutV ‘(fore)arm’: weak. 

2446. *tutE ‘clan/tribe, everybody, all’: possible. 

2446a. *tiit[a] ‘dust, ashes’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘smoke’): weak. 

2447. *toHtV ‘to run, to stream’: possible. 

2448. *tawhV ‘to abandon, to leave, to get lost’: possible. 

2449. *tayV ‘louse’: possible (with reservations). 

2450. *tiyA ‘to be narrow’: possible. 

2451. *tUhyV ‘to eat, to feed; food’: possible. 

2451a. *tahyV ‘to go away, to take away’ ([in descendant languages] — ► ‘to conceal’): 


2452. *wa ‘also, same’ ([in descendant languages] — ► ‘and’): strong. 

2453. *wV‘who?’: possible. 

2454. *wEcu ‘fitting, good, beautiful’: possible. 

2454a. *wic|cV (or *wEnc|cV ?) ‘all’: rejected. 

2455. *wac[V]qV ‘fluid’ (especially ‘dirty, fluid’), ‘dirt, slime’: rejected. 

2456. *wecV (or *wicV ?) ‘to order, to require, to beg’: possible. 

2457. *wec[V]?V ‘to go out’: rejected. 

2458. *w|?u|uc[V]yV ‘to put, to set, to lay’: rejected. 

2459. *wedV ‘to hunt’: weak. 

2460. *wedV (or *we?VdV ?) ‘to push, to strike, to cut (with weapon)’: possible. 

2461. *wVd[V] W ‘to walk, to go, to set out for’: possible. 

2462. *wedhA ‘to cause to go’ (‘to drive, to lead)’: possible. 

2463. *w[i]g[?]e ‘to carry, to take (somewhere)’: strong. 

2464. *wak*ie (= *wak?e ?) ‘strong, vigorous; strength’: possible. 

2465. *wak[V]Xa (= *wak[V]ha ?) or *wak[V]‘Ta ‘to shout’: possible. 

2466. *w[a]Ko (or *wasKo, *woKo) ‘to call’: weak. 

2467. *wik[a] ‘back part, behind, backwards’: rejected. 

2468. *woykV ‘straight, even, fit’: possible. 

2469. *walV ‘to be strong, to be able’: possible. 

2470. *wAla (or *wu|ola ?) ‘big, large; multitude’: possible. 

2471. *w[i]lV ‘to exchange’: rejected. 

2472. *wo?|glV (or *woSjglV ?) ‘to stay, to be’: rejected. 

2473. *waHlV ‘to cry, to speak’: possible. 

2474. *weH|yLV (or *weLHV ?) [= *weH 1 |yLV or ^weLH^ ?] ‘hip, waist’: rejected. 

2475. *waL‘iae ‘to wish, to require’: weak. 

2476. *wVL[h]V ‘to hit, to attack’ (— > ‘to wound, to kill’): possible. 

2477. *wAl|l[V][h]V ‘to turn, to roll, to revolve’: possible. 

2478. *w[e]l|l[V]hV (or *wil|l[V]hV ?) ‘field, plain’: possible. 

2479. *w[i]l[i]qV ‘liquid; moist, damp’: rejected. 

2480. *[']w[A]l[iy]V (or *[']wol[iy]V ?) ‘to draw, to pull (out, off)’: possible. 

2481. *wol[y]V ‘to look, to see’: weak. 

2482. *waLdV ‘to give birth’: weak. 

2483. *wi[l]ka?V ‘wet, moist’ : rejected. 

2484. *walK[a] ‘to be bright/white, to shine’: strong. 

2485. *w[u]LKa (or *w[u]LKa?V) ‘to remove, to dislocate’: rejected. 

2486. *wAlAtV (= *walAtV ?) ‘to run, to flee’: possible. 

2487. *wVl[V]tV ‘moist, mud’: rejected. 

2488. *w[e]lV ‘to shine, to lighten’: possible. 

2489. *w[e]lV or *welVKV ‘shoulder, upper part of the back’: weak. 

2490. *wVl[V]PE ‘fur-bearing animal’: rejected. 

2491. *wVmo[?]i ‘to use magical forces’ (‘to make magical signs, to pronounce 
magical incantations, to swear, to cause suffering, to torment’): possible. 

2492. *wumHV (or *humhV ?) ‘to spit out, to vomit’ : possible. 

2493. *w|yUmVR[T]V or *w|yEfmVrVnTV ‘egg’: rejected. 


2494. *wanV *[XV]wanV ‘relative (of a younger/the same generation) of the opposite 
exogamous moiety’ ([in descendant languages] — » ‘brother/sister-in-law, son-in- 
law’): possible. 

2495. *w[o]nV ‘wish, love; luck’: possible. 

2495a. *wV[‘iV]NV ‘to stay’: possible. 

2496. *wendV ‘to fight, to injure, to hurt’: rejected. 

2497. *wendV ‘to be withered, to dry’: possible. 

2498. *wen[?V]dV ‘to turn’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘to return’): possible. 

2499. *w[o]ntV ‘belly’: weak. 

2500. *wanV3[A] ‘belly’: weak. 

2501. *wanV ‘to squeeze, to press’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘to make weak, to 
ram, to trample down, to make compact by pressing’): weak. 

2501a. *wEyn|nV ~ *wEn|nyV ‘daylight’: rejected. 

2502. *wagE ‘to hit, to injure’: possible. 

2503. *war)[g]o ‘hook’ ([in descendant languages] —*■ ‘handle’): possible. 

2504. *wagKV ~ (> ?) *wogKV ‘hole, orifice’ (— > ‘pit’): possible. 

2505. *waqka ‘to bend’: strong. 

2506. *wopV ‘to pour, to strew’: possible. 

2507. *w[a]qa ‘to hit, to hurt’: possible. 

2508. *wAr[i] ‘to burn, to heat’: strong. 

2509. *warV ‘stream of water’: possible. 

2510. *waRV ‘crow, raven’: possible. 

2511. *'warV ‘to look, to watch’: possible. 

2512. *warE ‘to make, to do’ (<— ‘to plait’): possible. 

2513. *werV ‘to speak; communication’: strong. 

2514. *werV ‘without, not, void of, (?) empty’: possible. 

2515. *wa?re ‘wooded hill/mountain’: weak. 

2516. *waHrV ~ *warHV ‘to comb, to scrape’: possible. 

2517. *w[a]qrV (or *w[a]rqV ?) ‘to rain, to drip, to trickle, to be strained’: possible. 

2518. *[']weXVrV ‘mad, dizzy, intoxicated’: weak. 

2519. *wixRV ‘male, man’: weak. 

2520. *we[y]r[V]?V ‘back’: rejected. 

2521. *war?[u] -■ *wa?r[u] ‘rope, bonds’, ‘to bind’: possible. 

2522. *w[a]RiV (~ *w[a]?RV ??) ‘weak (of a person)’: possible. 

2523. *w[i]rh[ii|u] ‘to be wide/broad, to expand, to spread’: possible. 

2523a. *wAr[h]V ‘grain (of cereals)’: weak. 

2524. *wirxV ‘tree’, ‘shoot’: possible. 

2525. *wVr[y][E] ‘another’: weak. 

2526. *woRdV ‘to grow’ (trans.), ‘to raise, to bring up (children/animals)’: rejected. 

2527. *woRke ‘to make’: possible. 

2528. *werVKV ‘branches, leaves of a tree’: rejected. 

2529. *weraH[V]tV ‘root, sinew’: rejected. 

2530. *w[i]R 3 V ‘young herbivorous animal (calf, lamb, etc.)’: possible. 

2531. *wVR3V *wV3VRV ‘to pour, to flow’: rejected. 

2531a. *wArV ‘way, road’: possible. 

2532. *'wuru ‘to scratch’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘to plow’): possible. 


2533. *wArcV ‘to rub, to scrape’: possible. 

2534. *wASV (= *waSV ?) ‘rainy weather, rainy season’: weak. 

2535. *wa?[e]sV ‘to get tired, to become weary/troubled’: weak. 

2536. *wVS[7]V (= *wUs < TV ?) ‘wide, vast’: weak. 

2537. *was[V]tV ‘place inside’: rejected. 

2538. *wisV ‘green’: possible. 

2539. *wis?V ‘to grow (especially of plants)’: weak. 

2540. *wes|c'iV ‘to wind, to wrap, to clothe’: rejected. 

2541. *wAtV ‘belly’: rejected. 

2542. *wAtV ‘earth, ground, dirt’: rejected. 

2543. *watV ‘gut, sinew’: possible. 

2544. *'wete ‘(flowing) water’: possible. 

2545. *wAHtV ‘to smell (something), to smell (of something)’: rejected. 

2546. *witV?V ‘to find’: rejected. 

2547. *'wot[V?]E *'wot[E?]V ‘to speak, to utter sounds; (?) organ of speech’: weak. 

2548. *wet[y]V ‘to look, to see’: rejected. 

2549. *watV ‘heavy, firm, strong’: rejected. 

2550. *wetV ‘year’ [and/or ‘long time’ (—> ‘old’) ??]: possible. 

2551. *witV ‘grain’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘seed’): possible. 

2552. *waHtV ‘cold (north) wind’: possible. 

2553. *wAtVrV ‘to speak’: weak. 

2554. *'wayV ‘to want, to wish, to strive for’: weak. 

2555. *wVyV ‘we’: strong. 

2556. *wahyV ‘(to be) weak’: possible. 

2557. *woy[?]e “• *wo[?]ye ‘power, ability’: weak. 

2558. *wayHV ‘to descend; below’: rejected. 

2559. *wazV ‘little, young’: weak. 

2560. *wizV ‘gray, (?) withered’: rejected. 

2561. *w[U]z[E]Ko ~ *w[o]KVzV ‘a canine’: rejected. 

2562. *wih[V] 3 V ‘spring; to flow’: rejected. 

2563. *Xeb 3 V ‘breast’: rejected. 

2564. *xUcV ‘to peel, to bark, to scrape off (hair, etc.)’: rejected. 

2565. *x|qii[y]dV ‘to separate’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘to divide, to part’): 

2566. *[x]ud[V?]V ‘to get (somewhere), to reach (some place), to clash (with some- 
thing)’: rejected. 

2567. *XagV ‘dry, hard’: possible. 

2568. *Xa[?u]gae ‘to lack, to want’: rejected. 

2569. *XasgVrV ‘to gird, to tie around, to surround’: possible. 

2570. *XakECV ‘shoulder, armpit’: rejected. 

2571. *XakERV ‘plain’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘field’): weak. 

2572. *xaka|oRV ‘top part, tip, extremity’: rejected. 

2573. *xekV ‘to scratch, to scrape’: possible. 

2574. *[x]oKU (or *[x]oKi ?) ‘to call out, to speak (solemnly ?); incantations’: rejected. 

2575. *X[o]yEKV ‘lap, lower front part of the belly’: rejected. 

2576. *XAKArV ‘to need, to want, to be hungry’: weak. 


2577. *[x]alV (or *h-, * < i-) (‘forehead’ —>) ‘front, edge’: possible. 

2578. *xalV ‘(to be/become) clean’: possible. 

2579. *xelV ‘to live, to dwell’: possible. 

2580. *x e fV ‘fence, border; enclosure’: possible. 

2581. *Xili?V ‘(black) dirt, soot’: possible. 

2582. *XaLbV (= *XalbV ?) ‘white’: weak. 

2583. *X[a]lmV ‘dream; to dream’: possible. 

2584. *xolV ‘middle; to be among’: rejected. 

2585. *XamV ‘womb, vulva’: possible. 

2586. *XEmV ‘warm’: rejected. 

2587. *XomV ‘raw, sour, inedible’: possible. 

2588. *XumV (= *xumV ?) ‘to wish, to covet’: possible (with reservations). 

2589. *XumV ‘old (of things), bad, miserable’: possible. 

2590. *xVmV ‘wall, wind-break’: rejected. 

2591. *xam[V]ge ‘tight, narrow; to constrain’: possible. 

2592. *[X]o[?a]mus|sV f -1 *[X]o|a[?a]mU(-s|sV)] ‘articulation between a limb and a 
trunk’ (— > ‘hip, joint, rump’), ‘collar-bone’, ‘bones of the shoulder’, or similar: 

2593. *[x]ahV (or *-g-) ‘to bow, to bend down, to descend’: rejected. 

2594. *xinV ‘to be happy/glad, to love’: possible. 

2595. *XAn[V] < iV ‘together, with’: rejected. 

2596. *Xii[w]inCV (or *X[ii]nCV ?) ‘thin, narrow’: rejected. 

2597. *XanVkV (^ *XagkV ?) ‘jaw, palate’: possible. 

2598. *XVNkV (= *XaNka ?) ‘to loosen, to open , to remove’: possible. 

2599. *xlq[ a MV]KV (or *xl 9 [ a ]t)KV ?) ‘to bend’: possible. 

2600. *XanVtV ‘grain, kernel’: rejected. 

2600a. *Xaygo (= *h|xaygo) (a variant reconstruction instead of *?aygo) ‘marrow, brain, 
soft fat of animals’ (— > ‘to smear, to anoint’): rejected. 

2601. *Xur)gV ‘throat’: weak. 

2602. *XupV ‘to press, to crush, to rub’: possible. 

2602a. *xAtV ‘tracks, road’: possible. 

2603. *x[ aw [ a J] r E (or *x a wErV) ‘bright, white’: rejected. 

2604. *x or [V] w V ‘herd/pack of wild animals’ (— > ‘animal’ ?): possible. 

2605. *XaRcV (= *x a RcV ?) ‘to rub/scratch’: possible. 

2606. *[X]iRgV ‘(horned) arteodactyl’: weak. 

2607. *x a r[ii] ‘valley, depression, pit’: possible. 

2608. *x[°]t[A] ‘to scrape off : rejected. 

2609. *X[o]t[i] ‘fish’: rejected. 

2610. *XVtV ‘quick’: rejected. 

2610a. *XetVRV or *XiLtVrV ‘vein, sinew, root’: rejected. 

2611. *x a wV ‘to spurt, to rain’: rejected. 

2612. *x aw i|W] ‘to drive, to chase, to pursue’: possible. 

2613. *Xay[u] ‘to live’: strong. 

2614. *XoyV ‘to swim, to float, to flow’: possible. 


2615. *Xazu?V, *XazU?E, *XazEwV, *Xaz[V]wE ‘to cover, to spread’, ‘soft stuff 
spread on the ground as bedding’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘soft stuff [fell, 
feathers, hay]’): rejected. 

2616. *ya ‘which?’: strong. 

2617. *yE (= *y[i] ?) ‘these, they’ (deictic marker of animate plural): possible. 

2618. *yi ‘he’, (?) ‘that’ (anaphoric): weak. 

2619. *yi ‘a couple’ (inaminate) ([in descendant languages] — > a marker of dual): weak. 
2619a. *yV particle of hypocoristic (?) address (vocative): weak. 

2620. *yabE (~ *yapE) ‘to cover, to fence, to protect’: rejected. 

2621. *yad[a] (or *yada ?) ‘to go’: rejected. 

2622. *y[o]dV ‘claws (of a lobster/scorpion)’, ‘to hold between fingers/claws (e.g., of a 
lobster)’: rejected. 

2623. *yuge (or *yuke ?) ‘to drink’: rejected. 

2623a. *yuHV ‘to tie, to bind’, ‘something that binds/ties’: rejected. 

2624. *yakV ‘to pour, to cover with water’: rejected. 

2625. *yak[a] ‘ice, cold’: possible. 

2626. *yuka ‘to attach, to tie/bind to’: rejected. 

2627. *yaks[o] ‘to loosen’: rejected. 

2628. *yaeKse (or *yseKhae ?) ‘(very) bright, white’: weak. 

2629. *yoKE (or *?oKE ?) ‘to catch, to seize’: rejected. 

2629a. *yiLV ‘to burn’ (trans.), ‘to kindle’: weak. 

2630. *yel[ay]V ‘to shine; light’: rejected. 

2631. *y[a]mU (or *yomV) ‘to go, to set out/off : rejected. 

2632. *y[a]mV (or *yoma) ‘good/fit, right’: weak. 

2633. *yamV ‘body of water’ (‘sea, lake’) — > ‘water’: possible. 

2634. *yum[a] ‘daylight’ ([in the prehistory of descendant languages] — » ‘heaven, 
god’): weak. 

2635. *yan[h|?]V (or *?anh|?V ??) ‘to speak, to say’: possible. 

2636. *yaenTV ‘to stretch, to strain’: rejected. 

2637. *ya?or)[y]E *yo?aq[y]E (or *yawor)[y]E - 1 *yowap[y]E ?) ‘sinew, tendon’ ([in 
descendant languages] — > ‘bow (weapon)’): rejected. 

2638. *yar)[g]e ‘ice; to freeze’: possible. 

2639. *yVP < ii ‘to rise; up’: rejected. 

2640. *yUPxV ‘leopard’: rejected. 

2641. *yEqi or *y[u]qi ‘both, two (persons)’: rejected. 

2642. *yar[u] ‘to shine, to burn’: possible. 

2643. *yerV ‘misfortune’, ‘to curse, to be angry’: rejected. 

2644. *yoRV(-bV) ‘firm, strong, hard’: weak. 

2645. *ya?urU (= *ya?uro ?) ‘body of water’: weak. 

2645a. *yV?|gVrV ‘honeycomb’, {?} ‘behive’: rejected. 

2646. *yEr£V ‘young of a (ruminant) animal’: rejected. 

2647. *yarV ‘to draw/scratch a sign’: possible. 

2648. *yah[V]rV ‘broad open place’: rejected. 

2649. *yAsV ‘bone, limb, joint (articulation)’: possible. 

2650. *yosV ‘to go/run, to go away’: rejected. 

2651. *yu[_L]t[i] ‘with, beside’: rejected. 


2652. *yaHtV (= *ya?tV ?) ‘stranger, foreigner’ ([in descendant languages] — > 
‘enemy’): weak. 

2653. *yuwV ‘tree’: possible. 

2654. *yow?V ‘good, right, proper’: weak. 

2655. *[y]iyo ‘which’ (relative), (enclitic particle) ‘that which, related to’ (individuali- 
zation through relation): possible. 

2656. *zo?a (or *zo?ya, *zoy?a) ‘to bear (a young); to be bom, to grow’: weak. 

2657. *zig[o]dV ‘stake, peg’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘paling, fence’): rejected. 

2658. *zed[h]ii|u (or *zendV[h]ii|u ?) ‘to pull, to drag, to draw’: rejected. 

2659. *zog[V?]U *zogU[?V] ‘hill’: rejected. 

2660. *zVgErV (or *zVrgV ?) ‘back’: possible. 

2661. *zEgUtV (= *zEgUtV ?) ‘thigh, leg’: rejected. 

2662. *zVkU ‘to tie (up)’: rejected. 

2663. *zuLV ‘to fall, to crush down’: rejected. 

2664. *Za?lE(-gV) -■ Za?la(-pV) ‘awake, alive’: rejected. 

2665. *zoglE ‘back side’: weak. 

2666. *ziL'iV ‘to shove, to stir up’: rejected. 

2667. *zELqVPV ‘sorcery, witchcraft’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘calamities’): 

2668. *zel[V]-(Ka) ‘back, back part of animal’s body’: rejected. 

2669. *z[u]g[V]lV (^ *zVg[u]lV ?) ‘to flow, to pour’: rejected. 

2670. *zEr)gV ‘black, dirt-colored, dirty’: weak. 

2671. *zai][K] V ‘skin of animals’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘waterskin’, ‘sleeve’, 
etc.): rejected. 

2672. *zapV or *zaP?V ‘to strike’: possible. 

2673. *zoRV ‘foreign, hostile’: rejected. 

2674. *zUR[i] (= *zUr[i] ?) ‘to look at, to examine’ (or *zUR[i] ‘to watch, to spy’): 

2675. *ze < irV ‘to hate, to abhor, to be annoyed’: rejected. 

2676. *zorRu (or *zoRru) ‘line/boundary/strip of land between geographical objects/ 
areas’: rejected. 

2677. *z[a]hrV (-■ *3[a]hrV *z|3[a]hrV ?) ‘to shine, to be bright; light’: rejected. 

2678. *z[a][H]rV ‘low place, valley’: rejected. 

2678a. *z[e]hRV - 1 *z[e]R?V ‘to see, to know’: rejected. 

2679. *zaw[V]rV ‘young of beast’: rejected. 

2680. *zurVE ‘to fear, to frighten’: rejected. 

2681. *z|3 [i]R[H 2 ]V *z| 3[i][H 2 ]RV ‘to be very cold’: rejected. 

2682. *[za]Rga ‘to strike, to trample, to break’: possible. 

2683. *z[e]RzV ‘to set in motion, to incite, to make ready for fight’ [or ‘to be incited, to 
be ready for fight’]: weak. 

2684. *z[e]rdV ‘to grow’, ‘to feed, to rear’ (‘to cause to grow’): weak. 

2685. *z|3ity|qa ‘dirt, excrements’: rejected. 

2686. *z|3ew[h]V ‘to mix’: possible. 

2687. *zayH 2 V or *zan 2 yV ‘summer’ ([in the prehistory of the descendant languages] — > 
‘year’): rejected. 

2688. *z|3ae[y|?| < i]zV ‘to fill, to overflow’: rejected. 


2689. *z|zUfiEbV ‘to swallow, to eat’: rejected. 

2690. *zomVnV ‘to thi nk (to remember, to have a dream’): rejected. 

2691. *zom[V]RV ‘to dream’: rejected. 

2692. *[z]aPV (or *zaPV ?) ‘to make, to work’: rejected. 

2693. *zaes%|qV ‘blood’: rejected. 

2694. *za*iidV ‘to cut’: rejected. 

2695. *za[Ki]dV ‘to move, to go’: rejected. 

2696. *zUKU (= *zoKU ?) ‘juice’: rejected. 

2697. *zomV ‘heat, sun’, (?) ‘flame’: rejected. 

2698. *zUN[g]V ‘(young ?) ungulate’: rejected. 

2698a. *zEh 2 PV *zm 2 EPV [or *LEH 2 pV *LiH 2 EpV ?] ‘spade, shovel’: rejected. 

2699. *zUqU ‘to putrefy, to turn sour, to spoil, to become turbid’: rejected. 

2700. *zaeh[a]Ra ‘moon’: rejected. 

2701. *zVr[V]XV ~ *zV[X][V]rV (= *za[X]ErV ?) ‘to cut, to wound’: rejected. 

2702. * 3 [A][?]V(=* 3 [A][?]o?) ‘to lie’: rejected. 

2703. * 3 ugbV (or *zugbV ?) ‘fig tree’: rejected. 

2703a. *3e[El]bV ‘bird’ (probably ‘gallinaceous’ or ‘waterfowl’ ?): rejected. 

2704. * 3 eybA ‘tail, penis’: rejected. 

2704a. *[ 3 ]VcxaLV ‘fire; burning wood’: rejected. 

2705. * 3 Vc|cV ‘willow’: rejected. 

2706. * 3 igU ‘thorn’: possible. 

2707. * 30 gV ‘shoulder’ (or ‘part of the shoulder’): rejected. 

2708. * 3 Ug[U] ‘to move somewhere’ (intr., trans.): rejected. 

2709. * 3 UgV ‘mane, long hair (on animal’s body)’: rejected. 

2710. * 3 u[?]VgV (or * 3 ugV[?]V) (‘to bring’ — >) ‘to give, to give in exchange’: weak. 

2711. *3eg|kVrV (= * 3 Eg|kVrV ?) ‘antelope’: possible. 

2712. * 3 ega ‘to get/be sated’: rejected. 

2713. * 3 Vg[i] ‘rancid, rank, fetid’: possible. 

2714. ^iiqV ‘to press, to knead, to rub’: rejected. 

2715. * [ 3 ] [o]hE ‘to scatter’: rejected. 

2716. * 3 o'i[V]kV ‘back, end, tail’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘behind’, ‘after’, ‘to 
follow, to follow [game] by the tracks’): rejected. 

2717. * 3 iik[V?]V - 1 * 3 uk[V?]E ‘edible cereals, harvest (of wild plants ?)’: rejected. 

2718. *3[a]kVhV ‘elephant’: rejected. 

2719. * 3 alV (or * 3 alV£V ?) ‘flame’: possible. 

2720. * 3 seLV ‘to swing, to wave, to be shaky’, (?) ‘to spring, to leap’: weak. 

2721. * 3 ilV ‘to slip, to slide’: possible. 

2722. * 3 ag[V]li (or * 3 ag[V]layV) ‘secret[ly]’, ‘to deceive’: rejected. 

2723. * 3 Ah_UlV ‘(calf of) leg’, (?) ‘bone of leg’: rejected. 

2724. * 3 iXlV ~ * 3 ilXV ‘to creep, to crawl’: rejected. 

2725. * 3 ii[hV]lyV (or * 3 u[hV]]yE) ‘to smolder, to burn’ (intr.); ‘live coalsj: rejected. 

2726. * 3 VL[i]Kse ‘to slip, to slide’: possible (derived from no. 2721 * 3 ilV ‘to slip, to 
slide’, just as Dolgopolsky suggests). 

2727. * 3 [A]Iv ‘to be weak’: rejected. 

2728. *3 a HulV ‘light, sunshine, sun’: rejected. 

2729. * 3 Ahil|lV (or * 3 Ayil|lV ?) ‘wolf, dog’: rejected. 


2730. *3alXV (or *3alHV) ‘dripping, fluid’: rejected. 

273 1 . *3omV ‘spice, pungent material, pungent food’ : rejected. 

2732. *3asm[?]V (or *3- ?) ‘together; to unite, to tie together’: rejected. 

2733. *3iwVm[V]gE ‘leopard’: rejected. 

2734. *3amaka ~ *3amVKV ‘to cast, to throw’: rejected. 

2735. *3cnV ‘ear/sheaf of cereal, head of grass’: rejected. 

2736. *3E|anV ‘to burn’ (intr.), ‘live coal (embers), fire’: possible. 

2736a. *3VnV ‘image, sign’: rejected. 

2737. *3EhNV ‘to lie down, to sleep’: rejected. 

2738. *3|ci%|ynV ‘young, ungulate’: rejected. 

2739. *3VnhV ‘to acquire, to seize, to increase’: rejected. 

2740. *3uwVNV (= *3uwV[n|n]V ?) ‘to copulate’, (?) ‘membrum virile’: rejected. 

2741. *3[a]n[V]g|kU ‘antelope’: rejected. 

2742. *3630 ‘to sing, to produce musical sounds’: rejected. 

2743. *3ogE (or *3onE) ‘old’: rejected. 

2744. *3EgqV ‘to seek, to try to obtain’: rejected. 

2745. *3ogXV ‘to want, to wish’: weak. 

2746. *3[ii]gka (or *3[ii]nika) ‘to bend’: rejected. 

2747. *3apV ‘to hold, to catch’: weak. 

2748. *3|caPV ‘to cover’: rejected. 

2749. *3ipV ‘a pinch; to pinch’: rejected. 

2750. *3or[U] ‘to crawl, to climb’: possible. 

2751. *3[o]rV ‘bird of prey’: possible. 

2752. *3|zorV ‘hand (palm of hand and fingers), span’: rejected. 

2753. *3urV ‘inside of body, heart’: rejected. 

2754. *3[U]RV (= *3 oRV) ‘female, being’: rejected. 

2755. *3arVRV ‘hedgehog’: rejected. 

2756. *3[a]hRV ‘flower, blossom’, (?) ‘unripe berry’: rejected. 

2757. *3VRVmV ‘to stream, to flow, to pour’: rejected. 

2758. * 3 VRTV ‘pudenda muliebria’, ‘lewd’: rejected. 

2759. *3ur[u] ‘to stream’: rejected. 

2760. *3asV ‘bush (shrub), wood’: rejected. 

2761. *3isV‘fire’: rejected. 

2762. *3UwV ‘to eat, to taste’: possible. 

2763. *3iXV (or *ziXV) ‘to come, to go (away)’: weak. 

2764. *3[E']%U ‘to cause (someone, something) to move from one place to another’ (‘to 
lead, to drive’): rejected. 

2765. *3Vxi ‘to plait, to spin, to bind’: weak. 

2766. *3UH!yV ‘fiber, thick hair’ ([in Indo-European] — > ‘to bind, to sew’): rejected. 

2767. *3ii3V ~ *3un3A ‘teat, female breast’: weak. 

2768. *3 a [y]3VxU ‘leaf-bearing tree without berries and edible fruits (lime tree, Tilia, or 
similar)’: rejected. 

2769. *3ae?VbV (= *3e?VbV ?) ‘beast of prey (wolf or similar)’: rejected. 

2770. *3u[?]bV ‘to pour, to flow’: possible (with reservations). 

2771. * 3 [u][bV]bV ‘insect’ : rejected. 

2772. *[3]a[?]dV (or *3aHdV ?) ‘to spread, to be flat’ : possible. 


2773. *3aswy[i] ‘bad, ugly’ ([in descendant languages] — > ‘left’): rejected. 

2774. *3Uh[i] ‘to show; to learn, to get accustomed’: rejected. 

2775. *3[a]kU ‘low’, ‘short and stocky’ (of person): weak. 

2776. *3EyLV (or *3ELyV ?) ‘fox, weasel’: rejected. 

2777. *3amV ‘to be dying, to perish’: possible. 

2778. *3EmV ‘way [?]’ — > ‘manner of behavior’ — > ‘blame, fault’: rejected. 

2779. *3a[m|g]VKse ~ *3[a]KV[m|q]as ‘chin, beard’: rejected. 

2780. *3emuqa[H 2 e] ‘fog, smoke, hot/sultry air’: rejected. 

2780a. *3EThNV ‘to show; to understand, to be taught’: rejected. 

2781. *3ah[V]bV ‘tail, back’: rejected. 

2782. *3Un[c]U (or *3UncU ?) ‘ant, stinging insect’: rejected. 

2783. *3iqV ‘shame, humiliation’: rejected. 

2784. *JarE ‘good, favorable, beneficial’: possible. 

2785. *3 uRV ‘pole, stake, long piece of wood’: rejected. 

2786. *3a?[o]rV ‘to blame, to scold, to accuse, to be angry, to be annoyed/disgusted’ 

2787. *3ERV]ic£ ‘upper part of the leg/ann’: rejected. 

2787a. *3ER[u]l V ‘to flow, to stream; rapid current’: rejected. 

2788. *3awV ‘to have a changed taste (to get sour, to ferment, to fade’): rejected. 

2789. *3o[?]awV or *3a[?]owV ‘of pour quality/appearance, weak, bad’: rejected. 

2790. *3V%V ‘to push, to strike’: possible. 

2791. *3uhdV (or *3uhadV ?) ‘sweet’: rejected. 

2792. *3ckV ‘to be tight/crammed, to tighten’: rejected. 

2793. *3okV ‘to push’: rejected. 

2794. *3asiy ‘tree’: rejected. 

2795. *3uilV ‘to shine, to blaze; flame’: rejected. 

2796. *3[U]lh[u] ‘to take, to take away, to pull out’: rejected. 

2797. *[3]VmV (or *s|c|c|3VmV) ‘to put, to place’: rejected. 

2798. *3o|aHEmU ‘berries, tree with berries (Padus or similar)’: rejected. 

2799. *3VmVW (or *zVmVW ?) ‘wax’: rejected. 

2800. *[3]apV ‘basket, vessel’: rejected. 

2801. *3a[p?]V ‘lip’, (— >) ‘edge, shore, riverbank’: rejected. 

2802. *3eRgu ‘vein, sinew’: rejected. 

2803. *3irwV or *3ir[u] ‘root’: possible. 

2804. *3atV ‘fluid, body of water’: rejected. 

2805. *3asw[i] (or *3ae?w[i] ?) ‘up, upper point, extremity’: rejected. 

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